There seems to be only one common word for any part of the water next to the shore. And that would be "shallows". As in, "Its color was light green in the shallows..."
If there are any other words for the parts deeper than the shallows, and for the parts even deeper than that, I am unaware of them.
Edited to add: That being said, there is a word for the part of the sea close to the shore, namely "inshore". But it doesn't distinguish between the shallows and the deeper areas. There are words for various parts that further out from inshore. "Deeps" being one of them, but when we come to this we are not talking about the parts nearer the shore, which is the subject of your picture.