Ngrams is an excellent tool.
If you compare the incidences of résumé and curriculum vitae in British English, that résumé is fairly flat, and curriculum vitae increases fairly steadily over time. (Résumé used to be more common until the mid-1960s, when curriculum vitae took over). It looks like the use of résumé is increasing fairly steadily now, but is still some way behind.
The figures for American English are also interesting. Both terms are roughly equal until 1970, when curriculum vitae starts to pull ahead. Résumé stays fairly flat until the mid-1990s, at which point its use increases sharply so that by 2008 it beats curriculum vitae hands down.
So I guess in answer to your question: yes, the word résumé describing "a document used in support of a job application" is strongly regional (at least when comparing British and American usage).
As far as using résumé to mean summary, I don't know. I've never heard it used in that way, but of course anecdote != data.