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This question has troubled me for ages despite my several attempts of looking it up in dictionaries or usage books. Do we say, "Do you have any ideas" or "Do you have any idea"? I do see an example where "any" means "it doesn't matter who/which/what", therefore "You can borrow any book you like." Also, does it matter between using it in questions and negatives?

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    english.stackexchange.com/questions/111444/any-individual-or-any-individuals possible duplicate.
    – MetaEd
    May 2, 2013 at 0:46
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    This is what comes from looking in dictionaries and usage books for grammar information. It's not there, sorry. And that's not how any works. It can modify either plural count nouns or singular mass nouns, which means that any singular noun modified by any is automatically interpreted as a mass noun. That's what happens to idea; it is interpreted as meaning 'thought; mentation'. This is not all that surprising, since, while idea is usually a count noun, it is hard to distinguish an idea from some idea. Ideas are not notably countable. May 2, 2013 at 0:47
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    english.stackexchange.com/questions/75654/any-requirement-or-any-requirements another possible duplicate.
    – MetaEd
    May 2, 2013 at 1:01
  • Before asking any question check previous posts. Any questions?
    – Kris
    May 2, 2013 at 10:19
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    @John Lawler Women are notably countable. 'Ask any woman' is acceptable. Are you saying that there is a non-obvious massification (implying womankind) here? Apr 24, 2015 at 22:35

3 Answers 3

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It depends on the context. If a group of people is brainstorming (that is, trying to come up with a bunch of creative possibilities to solve a problem), then I might ask someone "Do you have any ideas?" In this situation, I am expecting that they may have several ideas that are relevant to the problem.

However, if I am asking for an answer to a specific question, I might say something like, "I can't remember what the capital of Pakistan is, do you have any idea?" In this situation, I am expecting that they might have one specific piece of information to offer. This is probably a more colloquial or idiomatic expression than the other one.

And yes, the use of "any" does have a lot to do with questions and negatives. "Any" is a negative polarity item, which means it can only happen in certain contexts. For example, I would never say "I have any ideas" or "I have any books", but I would say "I don't have any ideas" and "I don't have any books". I don't really know how to give you a full explanation of where or why "any" can be used though. The example you give about borrowing "any book" is certainly correct, even though it isn't negative or a question.

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I've been teaching English for almost five years now. My students have had this question before.

According to the books I've used (specifically Smart Choice by Oxford University Press and English in Mind by Cambridge), "any" is used only for uncountable nouns and plurals and when the sentence is a question or a negative. In the example above about "Do you have any ideas? / Do you have any idea?" consider that "Do you have any idea?" is using idea as a synonym of notion which in turn is uncountable. You would never use "any" for a singular noun you can count. Could you say "Do you have any books? / Do you have any book?"?

Remember that formulas exist in languages but we humans can break them, like the "adjective before a noun" formula in "it came upon a midnight clear" or "All remaining passengers must wait in the lounge / All passengers remaining must wait in the lounge."

In college I was taught that languages evolve because the people who use the language bend the rules. We invent the language, therefore we can re-invent it and reverse the rules at whim.

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    The restriction "when the sentence is a question or a negative" is incorrect, e.g. "Any answer is better than no answer." or "Any answer will do."
    – peak
    Sep 20, 2016 at 1:19
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    I agree. I like the definitions on Google (which I think are from the OED?). Idea can mean "a thought or suggestion" (countable), or "a concept or mental impression" (uncountable). Oct 11, 2016 at 21:04
  • @peak, What does "Senior Research Specialist" mean? You study English?
    – Pacerier
    May 30, 2018 at 11:03
  • @Pacerier - It’s the official title and means what it says, assuming it is parsed as “Senior (Research Specialist)”. Alas, I do not get paid to study English.
    – peak
    May 30, 2018 at 16:08
  • Is notion uncountable? Dec 6, 2021 at 23:17
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It may be worth pointing out that both Do you have any ideas? and Do you have any idea? are potentially correct, though they have very different meanings and the latter would normally only be used in a very specific context, e.g. rhetorically, as in:

Do you have any idea how much trouble you’ve caused? Do you have any idea?

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