I'd appreciate your assistance in helping me particularly understand how to use the phrase "as of" properly.

What is the proper interpretation of the following sentence?

"I need you to get me all transactions as of January 23rd"

  1. That I need all transactions from the beginning of time (so to speak) till January 23rd, or
  2. That I need all transactions from January 23rd to now?

Would "as at" be more appropriate to express (1)?

Would "as from" be more appropriate to express (2)?

  • 2
    Did you look around first? Q. could be closed for lacking research effort.
    – Kris
    Commented Apr 29, 2013 at 12:24
  • Found at forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=94129 : It´s very difficult to reach a conclusion when people in the forum give their different opinions about a particular language issue and these views do not coincide. There seems [sic] to be different ways of using the "as of now" phrase depending on the country you are in. So in this case the use of a dictionary could be the best way to clarify this thread. The trouble is that I haven´t been able to find any clear source of information in dictionaries up to this time. ['load'] Commented Apr 29, 2013 at 14:14
  • This is the best answer I've found as of today. britannica.com/dictionary/eb/qa/as-of-today
    – xiaokaoy
    Commented May 3 at 23:13

7 Answers 7


Joel is mistaken when he says that as of means "up to and including a point of time," although it is often used to mean so.

As of designates the point in time from which something occurs. So as of some point would mean from the date specified onward.

However, his answering of the best way to say each phrase is spot on.

One may use either until or up to to mean the time before which something occurs (remaining ambiguous about whether the date is inclusive or not).

And since is a fine choice.

So far as as from--this is a perfectly good expression in English. It has roughly the same connotation as as of except that it often holds the time before and the time after in contrast.

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    No, "as of" can mean both - 1) As of today, only three survivors have been found. 2) As of today, all passengers must check their luggage before boarding the plane.
    – John V
    Commented Oct 7, 2019 at 14:35

As OF implies everything up to and including a particular point in time.

As AT is similar to as of, and could be used synonymously. As at has a connotation of a snapshot. You might say transactions as of but balance as at.

As FROM is not an idiom in English as far as I have ever heard.

In order to be more clear, you could use different language altogether:

  1. I need all transactions up to and including January 23rd.

  2. I need all transactions since January 23rd.

  • As from is common in a different construction: As from 20 March, this office will be closed on Mondays. My mother used to inveigh against this usage, claiming that it should the from, and that as from was appropriate only when it meant as if from; but I've never heard anybody else argue this.
    – Colin Fine
    Commented Apr 29, 2013 at 17:23
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    @ColinFine - Thanks. I personally have not encountered as from used in this way and I would agree with your mother wholeheartedly.
    – Joel Brown
    Commented Apr 29, 2013 at 17:43
  • "As at" typically means "on a particular date or time". In AmE, "as of" is often to express the same. Tenses provide the clues. E.g. "As of today, there are 10 members in the union."
    – John V
    Commented Oct 7, 2019 at 14:37
  • According to Cambridge English dictionary 'As of' means "starting from a particular time or date". So it would be the opposite of 'as at' not the synonym.
    – Daniel B
    Commented Jun 1, 2020 at 11:14
  • @Daniel, read John V's comment to Ben Mullikin's answer. The context of OP's question implies backward looking use (report of actions that have occurred over a period of time) so my answer is appropriate to this context.
    – Joel Brown
    Commented Jun 1, 2020 at 13:57

AS OF would mean "at a certain time onward". AS AT would mean "at a precise time of event". AS FROM would mean "at a certain time onward" just like AS OF, but I still don't quite get it.

That leads me to go back and use SINCE. Much simpler and people use it in writings and speeches. So, why not?


You can argue that as from needn't exist, or that it's silly, but you can't argue that it's not an expression in use. From ODO:

chiefly British Used to indicate the time or date from which something starts:

It is most commonly used in referring to the starting date of a period at which something applies, or rather will apply, since the reference is usually to a time in the future at the time of writing.


You have a valid point. Dictionaries disagree.

This definition of as of is given by Wiktionary:

From, at, or until a given time.

Collins concurs:

up to, on, or from (a specified time)

Most dictionaries give the first two senses as listed by Wikipedia, but Garner [A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage; Bryan A. Garner] disagrees:

But as of now does not mean 'at present'; rather it means 'up to the present time'.... [It] is today totally unobjectionable in AmE.

  • 1
    This does not appear to be an answer. It seems merely a comment agreeing with the OP on their confusion.
    – Greybeard
    Commented Feb 2, 2022 at 12:10
  • 1
    It is certainly an answer. There are three conflicting meanings in play, licensed by certain dictionaries. 'As of' is ill-defined. Any answer claiming that only one meaning is licensed is incorrect. // You mean 'I don't like this answer.' Commented Feb 2, 2022 at 14:43

What is the proper interpretation of the following sentence?

"I need you to get me all transactions as of January 23rd"

This sentence is ambiguous:

If "as of January 23rd" is adjectival, then not only can it mean

That I need all transactions from the beginning of time (so to speak) till January 23rd,


That I need all transactions from January 23rd to now?

but if "as of January 23rd" is adverbial, it can also mean "As of January 23rd, your job will include getting me all the transactions."

Absent context, the grammar and construction is correct but the content is ambiguous.


As at, means any occurrence previous till a given time period, or date, whereas, as of, means any occurrence from a given time period or date onwards. The former is a destination whereas the latter is a starter. E.g. 1. Uche had left office as at 5 o'clock I arrived. 2. The parties hereto, have caused this agreement to be duly executed as of 27th of April, 2015.

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