In answer to your first question: yes. While Blessed Geek and Kristina Lopez are certainly on the right track, I approach your question from a slightly different perspective, and the word I put forward is unfamiliarity, and the phrase unaccustomed to.
Because the affective or emotional aspect of music is part and parcel of the experience of listening to music, particularly music that is new to us, our unfamiliarity with it engenders various reactions in various people. I remember being "turned off" when I first listened to the music of Mahler. After repeated listening, however, my attitude changed and I began to enjoy his music, particularly his first symphony.
Another person who has no desire to be exposed to classical music--my daughter, for example, may allow prejudice to keep "that kind" of music completely out of her life. Music is, after all, a matter of taste. De gustibus non est disputandum. What we initially hate we may eventually love, though not necessarily.
A child who hates asparagus may grow to like it later in life. Another kid avoids asparagus her entire life. Why is that? Perhaps the former kid is more open to experience asparagus, and the latter is not. My daughter may never acquire the taste for classical music. From my perspective, her life may as a result of her lack of openness to classical music be stunted in some way. At this point in her life, however, she couldn't care less; her mind is made up.
If we are open to it, sometimes a piece of music simply "grows" on us through repeated exposure. That is what you experienced in listening to Chopin. What was at first unfamiliar in Chopin's music became familiar to you; what you were once unaccustomed to you become accustomed to. It's a process. Our initial dislike may turn into affection or at the very least a certain grudging respect and admiration.
O course, music is but one aspect of human experience to which we can be drawn inexorably. One person may devote his entire life to discovering at the micro level the intricacies and complexities of single-cell organisms or at the nano level, quarks, while another person may take a macro approach and study the universe write large, black holes and all.
All disciplines, music included, challenge us with their learning curves, and tantalize us with yet-to-be-discovered facts and facets. Curiosity drives some people into uncharted territory, while other folks play it safe and refuse to learn, to grow, to evolve. Similarly, some people dabble in many things; others plunge headlong into just one or two; still others become Renaissance men and women, who through nature and nurture become polymaths.
Sensory overload is an apt expression for your initial experience of the work by Chopin. We experience sensory overload, in part at least, because we are unfamiliar/unaccustomed to something new. Granted, the words familiar/unfamiliar and accustomed/unaccustomed may not be what you are looking for, but I think they capture the essence of your question, if only partially.