Trickiest is apparent or apparently - these are used whether something appears to be the case at first sight or on the surface (superficially) but in fact you are inclined to doubt it - that is you suspect that in truth it is not the case. In a sense such statements are weak assertions, but there is a negative strength due to the dubious overtones (you are expressing doubt).
Intermediate is evident or evidently - these imply that you have some evidence that something is the case and in fact you are inclined to believe it - that is you suspect that in truth the assertion holds. In a sense such statements are stronger assertions, but there is a negativity due to deliberately opening the statement up for contradiction by further evidence.
Stronger still is obvious or obviously - these imply that there is little room for doubt. Nonetheless the fact that something is thought obvious (even by a great many people) does not mean that it is actually true. In science (or linguistics), we often take the obvious and try to formally prove or disprove it. Sometimes we find that the obvious is false, or only a first approximation, and a new theory supplants the old. Or putting it another way, we start to believe theories that are very non-obvious or counter-intuitive (think relativity, quantum mechanics, round earth, earth going round the sun; words and sentences are concepts in linguistics that do not have an obvious definition that survives across languages).
To add another case, supposed or supposedly - imply that something is thought to be the case and leaves room for doubt (with the -s- pronounced /z/), but trickily supposed to can mean that something should be the case, is expected to be the case, or is meant to be the case (with the -s- pronounced /s/). Here we have two different connotations depending on whether we pronounce it with a voiced or unvoiced sibilant (/s/ or /z/).
"She was supposed to have killed him!" has two different meanings depending on how you pronounce it.
Regarding the test and dropping the brackets since those words make a difference:
- It is quite __ that he took the wrong path.
A.apparent B.evident C.stupid D.absurd
A - you would say: apparently he took the wrong path.
B - most likely, especially with 'quite', implying looking at evidence.
C - not so good in a passive context: he is stupid for taking the wrong path.
D - not so good: It is quite absurd to think that he took the wrong path.
- It is __ that two and two make four.
A.apparent B.evident C.obvious D.visible
A&B are unlikely as it is not something you normally see or need evidence for.
C is most likely.
ABD might occur with a diagram but are still awkward: this diagram makes visible the obvious and self-evident fact that two and [plus] two makes four.
- It is __ that you have been cheated.
A.clear B.apparent C.regretful D.ignorant
A is most likely, passing a judgement based on the evidence (evidently would work).
B would be possible but less definite, but again given the judgement isn't final yet would be more likely stated as: Apparently you have been cheated.
C would be stated as: It is regrettable that you have been cheated. (Or in an active form.)
D would be more like: [you are plain] ignorant if you think that you have been cheated.