I need to find a word which means "the town or city in which one lives". Words like "residence" or "domicile" appear to have this meaning, but because "residence" and "domicile" can also mean "the home in which one lives", my readers will be confused. Is there a word which only refers to the geographic location?
Your hometown is the city or town which you consider "home." This, however, may be no better for you, as there is no universal agreement on what to consider "home":
the place where you were raised as a child. Some use hometown exclusively in this sense; others may specify childhood hometown to separate it from a later home.
the place where you have settled permanently or semi-permanently as an adult, and have dwelled in for some time.
the place where you were born (birthplace).
Because of the conflicting meanings of hometown, legal documents use more specific wording such as city of residence and city of birth. Facebook similarly allows you to list a separate "hometown" and "current city."
For myself, I was born in one city and lived there until I was around 4, moved and spent ages 5-6 in another, 7-8 in another, and 9-17 in a fourth, 18-23 in a fifth, and 24-present in a sixth. If someone asks me for my hometown, I give city 4, because that is the place I identify with most closely, even though I have now lived in city 6 for far longer.
I don't believe there is a specific word that fulfills the specific criteria you're looking for, however, you could use a word that means city, for example, "municipal," and precede it with "his" to assert that it's his city of residence.