I am looking for a single word to describe the hand-out given by teachers after training for the purpose of self-learning. I would like something other than snap-shot, fast facts or bite-size.
The term cheat sheet can mean
A document containing summarized information used for quick reference
However, this term is also used to refer to crib notes, a secret reference used to help on a test.
I agree with Jon Hanna's comment. I have had this sort of document given to me thousands of times over the course of twenty years of education at eight different institutions and have never heard them refered to as anything other than "handouts."
When I was at college such hand-outs given to students after lessons we were simply called factsheets. They usually contained a summary of all the key facts we were supposed to learn off by heart.
If the hand-outs have been left behind they probably aren't much good. In that case you might call them bumf, in the first sense:-
informal , derogatory superfluous documents, forms, publicity material, etc
We call those Resources. Would that work?
Something that can be used for support or help
An available supply that can be drawn on when needed. Often used in the plural.
Supplemental study guide or supplemental study material, though not a single word, encompasses your description of the types of materials distributed by a teacher to be used for self-study by the students.