The verbs dare and need do not require auxiliaries when used in the interrogative; for example, “need I?” is as acceptable as “do I need?”
Excluding the auxiliaries themselves (like be, do, have), are there any other such verbs that work that way?
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No, not in the same way, but then need and dare are both a little different, anyway.
Need and dare have several peculiarities:
The syntactic peculiarities of modal verbs include the following:
Modals usually have idiomatic inflectable paraphrases:
For the semimodals the inflectable paraphrases are simply
So, no, there really aren't any more semimodal verbs in English. But there are lots of individual irregularities among verbs. When you look at the details, you find that every verb is different from every other verb in some syntactic ways.
Occasionally, people still express questions in this form:
"What say you to a nice cabernet?"
"What think you of our impetuous young friend?"
These aren't standard constructions, however, and their very stiltedness imparts a note of amusement or irony to the question. No such sense attaches to, for example, "How dare you speak to me like that?" or "Need I say more?"
But the first two examples I gave also have this difference from the second two: they don't appear in tandem with a following verb. The expressions "dare...speak" and "need...say" are thus operating in a different way from "say to [this]" or "think of [that]."
A genuinely archaic example of such a construction (from Ezekiel 34:18 in the 1611 King James Bible) involves "seemeth":
Seemeth it a small thing vnto you, to haue eaten vp the good pasture, but yee must tread downe with your feet the residue of your pastures? and to haue drunke of the deepe waters, but ye must foule the residue with your feete?
All modals act this way, and though 'dare' and 'need' aren't usually modal, they can act that way. Should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must, ought (yes, I left out 'shall', a bit too old-fashioned).
Should I answer this question?
Dare I answer this question?
are perfectly fine (the former is very everyday; the latter is a bit 1950's sounding and wouldn't be commonly used nowadays).
Need I answer this question?
is questionable to me. I don't think it sounds right, but I do figure that others might (again maybe from the 1950's).