I am studying English and I want to know the main difference between “Have you got?” and “Do you have?” questions. Are they the same? Is one more formal than the other?
Contrary to the above, "Have you got" is more common in British English than "Do you have" (about 2:1); but "Do you have" is much more common in American English than "Have you got" (more than 10:1).
Note that the response includes only the relevant auxiliary: - "Do you have a pen"; "Yes, I do". - "Have you got a pen"; "Yes, I have".
In fact, the most common form where I live (in Northern Ireland) is simply "Have you", but that sounds old-fashioned to many English speakers elsewhere.
Have a look at the "Separated by a Common Language" blog.
The word got generally bears a more informal sound to it, maybe because of its wide range of uses. In contrast, the word do, when used in this manner creates a structure that is probably unique to English. The latter option displays the verb-subject word order used in many other languages, while the former uses the do+subject+verb construction, which probably appeals to the native speaker's ear.