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  • Vowels ended up being lengthened in some positions before single consonants, while they remained short before geminate consonants. Later on, contrastive vowel length was also lost as a phonological feature of English, but it is often reflected in Modern English contrasts in vowel quality. (Apparently, the term for this is "transphonologization," found in the answer to this question: http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/96456/What did we gain in return for the loss of phonemic vowel length from Old English?) Examples: Old English eall/all is cognate to Modern English all /ɔːl/; Old English talu is cognate to Modern English tale /teɪl/
  • Geminate fricatives such as [ff, ss] were always voiceless, while single fricatives were voiced [v, z] in some circumstances, such as between vowels. This voicing is generally not considered to have been contrastive in Old English, but it has become contrastive in Modern English. (For a more detailed explanation, see this paper: An explanation for the early phonemicisation of a voice contrast in English fricatives.) Examples: Old English ofer and dysig are cognate to Modern English over and dizzy; Old English offrian and cyssan are cognate to Modern English offer and kiss. There were not actually that many words with /ff/ in Old English, though, and even fewer survived to Modern English; it took me a bit of time to find these examples.
  • Geminate /jj/ was apparently realized as an affricate [dː͡ʒ] in Old English; this affricate continued to contrast with /j/ even after the lost of contrastive consonant length. In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /d͡ʒ/ and words with a front vowel or diphthong ending in a front vowel component. Examples: Old English hegg/hecg is cognate to Modern English hedge /hɛd͡ʒ/; Old English weg is cognate to modern English way /weɪ/
  • Geminate /gg/ developed into /g/; single /g/ developed into /w/ when at the end of a syllable or between vowels (it was realized as a fricative or approximant [ɣ], or at the end of a word [x], in these positions in Old English). In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /g/ and words with a back vowel or diphthong ending in a back vowel component. Examples: Old English frogga/frocga is cognate to Modern English frog /frɒg/ (in some North American varieties, /frɔːg/); Old English boga is cognate to Modern English bow /boʊ/ (as in "bow and arrow")
  • Vowels ended up being lengthened in some positions before single consonants, while they remained short before geminate consonants. Later on, contrastive vowel length was also lost as a phonological feature of English, but it is often reflected in Modern English contrasts in vowel quality. (Apparently, the term for this is "transphonologization," found in the answer to this question: http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/96456/) Examples: Old English eall/all is cognate to Modern English all /ɔːl/; Old English talu is cognate to Modern English tale /teɪl/
  • Geminate fricatives such as [ff, ss] were always voiceless, while single fricatives were voiced [v, z] in some circumstances, such as between vowels. This voicing is generally not considered to have been contrastive in Old English, but it has become contrastive in Modern English. (For a more detailed explanation, see this paper: An explanation for the early phonemicisation of a voice contrast in English fricatives.) Examples: Old English ofer and dysig are cognate to Modern English over and dizzy; Old English offrian and cyssan are cognate to Modern English offer and kiss. There were not actually that many words with /ff/ in Old English, though, and even fewer survived to Modern English; it took me a bit of time to find these examples.
  • Geminate /jj/ was apparently realized as an affricate [dː͡ʒ] in Old English; this affricate continued to contrast with /j/ even after the lost of contrastive consonant length. In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /d͡ʒ/ and words with a front vowel or diphthong ending in a front vowel component. Examples: Old English hegg/hecg is cognate to Modern English hedge /hɛd͡ʒ/; Old English weg is cognate to modern English way /weɪ/
  • Geminate /gg/ developed into /g/; single /g/ developed into /w/ when at the end of a syllable or between vowels (it was realized as a fricative or approximant [ɣ], or at the end of a word [x], in these positions in Old English). In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /g/ and words with a back vowel or diphthong ending in a back vowel component. Examples: Old English frogga/frocga is cognate to Modern English frog /frɒg/ (in some North American varieties, /frɔːg/); Old English boga is cognate to Modern English bow /boʊ/ (as in "bow and arrow")
  • Vowels ended up being lengthened in some positions before single consonants, while they remained short before geminate consonants. Later on, contrastive vowel length was also lost as a phonological feature of English, but it is often reflected in Modern English contrasts in vowel quality. (Apparently, the term for this is "transphonologization," found in the answer to this question: What did we gain in return for the loss of phonemic vowel length from Old English?) Examples: Old English eall/all is cognate to Modern English all /ɔːl/; Old English talu is cognate to Modern English tale /teɪl/
  • Geminate fricatives such as [ff, ss] were always voiceless, while single fricatives were voiced [v, z] in some circumstances, such as between vowels. This voicing is generally not considered to have been contrastive in Old English, but it has become contrastive in Modern English. (For a more detailed explanation, see this paper: An explanation for the early phonemicisation of a voice contrast in English fricatives.) Examples: Old English ofer and dysig are cognate to Modern English over and dizzy; Old English offrian and cyssan are cognate to Modern English offer and kiss. There were not actually that many words with /ff/ in Old English, though, and even fewer survived to Modern English; it took me a bit of time to find these examples.
  • Geminate /jj/ was apparently realized as an affricate [dː͡ʒ] in Old English; this affricate continued to contrast with /j/ even after the lost of contrastive consonant length. In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /d͡ʒ/ and words with a front vowel or diphthong ending in a front vowel component. Examples: Old English hegg/hecg is cognate to Modern English hedge /hɛd͡ʒ/; Old English weg is cognate to modern English way /weɪ/
  • Geminate /gg/ developed into /g/; single /g/ developed into /w/ when at the end of a syllable or between vowels (it was realized as a fricative or approximant [ɣ], or at the end of a word [x], in these positions in Old English). In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /g/ and words with a back vowel or diphthong ending in a back vowel component. Examples: Old English frogga/frocga is cognate to Modern English frog /frɒg/ (in some North American varieties, /frɔːg/); Old English boga is cognate to Modern English bow /boʊ/ (as in "bow and arrow")
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  • Vowels ended up being shortened before geminate consonants, and lengthened in some positions before single consonants, while they remained short before geminate consonants. Later on, contrastive vowel length was also lost as a phonological feature of English, but it is often reflected in Modern English contrasts in vowel quality. (Apparently, the term for this is "transphonologization," found in the answer to this question: http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/96456/) Examples: Old English eall/all is cognate to Modern English all /ɔːl/; Old English talu is cognate to Modern English tale /teɪl/
  • Geminate fricatives such as [ff, ss] were always voiceless, while single fricatives were voiced [v, z] in some circumstances, such as between vowels. This voicing is generally not considered to have been contrastive in Old English, but it has become contrastive in Modern English. (For a more detailed explanation, see this paper: An explanation for the early phonemicisation of a voice contrast in English fricatives.) Examples: Old English ofer and dysig are cognate to Modern English over and dizzy; Old English offrian and cyssan are cognate to Modern English offer and kiss. There were not actually that many words with /ff/ in Old English, though, and even fewer survived to Modern English; it took me a bit of time to find these examples.
  • Geminate /jj/ was apparently realized as an affricate [dː͡ʒ] in Old English; this affricate continued to contrast with /j/ even after the lost of contrastive consonant length. In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /d͡ʒ/ and words with a front vowel or diphthong ending in a front vowel component. Examples: Old English hegg/hecg is cognate to Modern English hedge /hɛd͡ʒ/; Old English weg is cognate to modern English way /weɪ/
  • Geminate /gg/ developed into /g/; single /g/ developed into /w/ when at the end of a syllable or between vowels (it was realized as a fricative or approximant [ɣ], or at the end of a word [x], in these positions in Old English). In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /g/ and words with a back vowel or diphthong ending in a back vowel component. Examples: Old English frogga/frocga is cognate to Modern English frog /frɒg/ (in some North American varieties, /frɔːg/); Old English boga is cognate to Modern English bow /boʊ/ (as in "bow and arrow")
  • German also had vowel-shortening before geminates, vowel-lengthening in certain contexts before single consonants but not before geminate consonants, and developed a contrast between voiceless geminate /ss/ and voiced single /z/ that became a pure voicing contrast /s/ vs. /z/ when geminates were simplified. (There are a number of German dialects/related languages that still have length contrasts for consonants, but standard German does not.)
  • Western Romance languages historically have a voicing contrast of /f, s/ vs. /v, z/ that dates back in part to an original, lost length contrast /ff, ss/ vs. /f, s/. This voicing contrast is still visible in Modern French, which only has type 1 and type 3 gemination (using Greg Lee's terminology). French loanwords are thought to have influenced the development of the English voicing contrast in fricatives.
  • Vowels ended up being shortened before geminate consonants, and lengthened in some positions before single consonants. Later on, contrastive vowel length was also lost as a phonological feature of English, but it is often reflected in Modern English contrasts in vowel quality. (Apparently, the term for this is "transphonologization," found in the answer to this question: http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/96456/) Examples: Old English eall/all is cognate to Modern English all /ɔːl/; Old English talu is cognate to Modern English tale /teɪl/
  • Geminate fricatives such as [ff, ss] were always voiceless, while single fricatives were voiced [v, z] in some circumstances, such as between vowels. This voicing is generally not considered to have been contrastive in Old English, but it has become contrastive in Modern English. (For a more detailed explanation, see this paper: An explanation for the early phonemicisation of a voice contrast in English fricatives.) Examples: Old English ofer and dysig are cognate to Modern English over and dizzy; Old English offrian and cyssan are cognate to Modern English offer and kiss. There were not actually that many words with /ff/ in Old English, though, and even fewer survived to Modern English; it took me a bit of time to find these examples.
  • Geminate /jj/ was apparently realized as an affricate [dː͡ʒ] in Old English; this affricate continued to contrast with /j/ even after the lost of contrastive consonant length. In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /d͡ʒ/ and words with a front vowel or diphthong ending in a front vowel component. Examples: Old English hegg/hecg is cognate to Modern English hedge /hɛd͡ʒ/; Old English weg is cognate to modern English way /weɪ/
  • Geminate /gg/ developed into /g/; single /g/ developed into /w/ when at the end of a syllable or between vowels (it was realized as a fricative or approximant [ɣ], or at the end of a word [x], in these positions in Old English). In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /g/ and words with a back vowel or diphthong ending in a back vowel component. Examples: Old English frogga/frocga is cognate to Modern English frog /frɒg/ (in some North American varieties, /frɔːg/); Old English boga is cognate to Modern English bow /boʊ/ (as in "bow and arrow")
  • German also had vowel-shortening before geminates, vowel-lengthening before single consonants, and developed a contrast between voiceless geminate /ss/ and voiced single /z/ that became a pure voicing contrast /s/ vs. /z/ when geminates were simplified. (There are a number of German dialects/related languages that still have length contrasts for consonants, but standard German does not.)
  • Western Romance languages historically have a voicing contrast of /f, s/ vs. /v, z/ that dates back in part to an original, lost length contrast /ff, ss/ vs. /f, s/. This voicing contrast is still visible in Modern French, which only has type 1 and type 3 gemination (using Greg Lee's terminology). French loanwords are thought to have influenced the development of the English voicing contrast in fricatives.
  • Vowels ended up being lengthened in some positions before single consonants, while they remained short before geminate consonants. Later on, contrastive vowel length was also lost as a phonological feature of English, but it is often reflected in Modern English contrasts in vowel quality. (Apparently, the term for this is "transphonologization," found in the answer to this question: http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/96456/) Examples: Old English eall/all is cognate to Modern English all /ɔːl/; Old English talu is cognate to Modern English tale /teɪl/
  • Geminate fricatives such as [ff, ss] were always voiceless, while single fricatives were voiced [v, z] in some circumstances, such as between vowels. This voicing is generally not considered to have been contrastive in Old English, but it has become contrastive in Modern English. (For a more detailed explanation, see this paper: An explanation for the early phonemicisation of a voice contrast in English fricatives.) Examples: Old English ofer and dysig are cognate to Modern English over and dizzy; Old English offrian and cyssan are cognate to Modern English offer and kiss. There were not actually that many words with /ff/ in Old English, though, and even fewer survived to Modern English; it took me a bit of time to find these examples.
  • Geminate /jj/ was apparently realized as an affricate [dː͡ʒ] in Old English; this affricate continued to contrast with /j/ even after the lost of contrastive consonant length. In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /d͡ʒ/ and words with a front vowel or diphthong ending in a front vowel component. Examples: Old English hegg/hecg is cognate to Modern English hedge /hɛd͡ʒ/; Old English weg is cognate to modern English way /weɪ/
  • Geminate /gg/ developed into /g/; single /g/ developed into /w/ when at the end of a syllable or between vowels (it was realized as a fricative or approximant [ɣ], or at the end of a word [x], in these positions in Old English). In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /g/ and words with a back vowel or diphthong ending in a back vowel component. Examples: Old English frogga/frocga is cognate to Modern English frog /frɒg/ (in some North American varieties, /frɔːg/); Old English boga is cognate to Modern English bow /boʊ/ (as in "bow and arrow")
  • German also had vowel-lengthening in certain contexts before single consonants but not before geminate consonants, and developed a contrast between voiceless geminate /ss/ and voiced single /z/ that became a pure voicing contrast /s/ vs. /z/ when geminates were simplified. (There are a number of German dialects/related languages that still have length contrasts for consonants, but standard German does not.)
  • Western Romance languages historically have a voicing contrast of /f, s/ vs. /v, z/ that dates back in part to an original, lost length contrast /ff, ss/ vs. /f, s/. This voicing contrast is still visible in Modern French, which only has type 1 and type 3 gemination (using Greg Lee's terminology). French loanwords are thought to have influenced the development of the English voicing contrast in fricatives.
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  • Vowels ended up being shortened before geminate consonants, and lengthened in some positions before single consonants. Later on, contrastive vowel length was also lost as a phonological feature of English, but it is often reflected in Modern English contrasts in vowel quality. (Apparently, the term for this is "transphonologization," found in the answer to this question: http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/96456/) Examples: Old English eall/all is cognate to Modern English all /ɔːl/; Old English talu is cognate to Modern English tale /teɪl/
  • Geminate fricatives such as [ff, ss] were always voiceless, while single fricatives were voiced [v, z] in some circumstances, such as between vowels. This voicing is generally not considered to have been contrastive in Old English, but it has become contrastive in Modern English. (For a more detailed explanation, see this paper: An explanation for the early phonemicisation of a voice contrast in English fricatives.) Examples: Old English ofer and dysig are cognate to Modern English over and dizzy; Old English offrian and cyssan are cognate to Modern English offer and kiss. There were not actually that many words with /ff/ in Old English, though, and even fewer survived to Modern English; it took me a bit of time to find these examples.
  • Geminate /jj/ was apparently already realized as an affricate [dː͡ʒ] in Old English; this affricate continued to contrast with /j/ even after the lost of contrastive consonant length. In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /d͡ʒ/ and words with a front vowel or diphthong ending in a front vowel component. Examples: Old English hegg/hecg is cognate to Modern English hedge /hɛd͡ʒ/; Old English weg is cognate to modern English way /weɪ/
  • Geminate /gg/ developed into /g/; single /g/ developed into /w/ when at the end of a syllable or between vowels (it was realized as a fricative or approximant [ɣ], or at the end of a word [x], in these positions in Old English). In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /g/ and words with a back vowel or diphthong ending in a back vowel component. Examples: Old English frogga/frocga is cognate to Modern English frog /frɒg/ (in some North American varieties, /frɔːg/); Old English boga is cognate to Modern English bow /boʊ/ (as in "bow and arrow")
  • Vowels ended up being shortened before geminate consonants, and lengthened in some positions before single consonants. Later on, contrastive vowel length was also lost as a phonological feature of English, but it is often reflected in Modern English contrasts in vowel quality. (Apparently, the term for this is "transphonologization," found in the answer to this question: http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/96456/) Examples: Old English eall/all is cognate to Modern English all /ɔːl/; Old English talu is cognate to Modern English tale /teɪl/
  • Geminate fricatives such as [ff, ss] were always voiceless, while single fricatives were voiced [v, z] in some circumstances, such as between vowels. This voicing is generally not considered to have been contrastive in Old English, but it has become contrastive in Modern English. (For a more detailed explanation, see this paper: An explanation for the early phonemicisation of a voice contrast in English fricatives.) Examples: Old English ofer and dysig are cognate to Modern English over and dizzy; Old English offrian and cyssan are cognate to Modern English offer and kiss. There were not actually that many words with /ff/ in Old English, though, and even fewer survived to Modern English; it took me a bit of time to find these examples.
  • Geminate /jj/ was apparently already realized as an affricate [dː͡ʒ] in Old English; this affricate continued to contrast with /j/ even after the lost of contrastive consonant length. In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /d͡ʒ/ and words with a front vowel or diphthong ending in a front vowel component. Examples: Old English hegg/hecg is cognate to Modern English hedge /hɛd͡ʒ/; Old English weg is cognate to modern English way /weɪ/
  • Geminate /gg/ developed into /g/; single /g/ developed into /w/ when at the end of a syllable or between vowels. In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /g/ and words with a back vowel or diphthong ending in a back vowel component. Examples: Old English frogga/frocga is cognate to Modern English frog /frɒg/ (in some North American varieties, /frɔːg/); Old English boga is cognate to Modern English bow /boʊ/ (as in "bow and arrow")
  • Vowels ended up being shortened before geminate consonants, and lengthened in some positions before single consonants. Later on, contrastive vowel length was also lost as a phonological feature of English, but it is often reflected in Modern English contrasts in vowel quality. (Apparently, the term for this is "transphonologization," found in the answer to this question: http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/96456/) Examples: Old English eall/all is cognate to Modern English all /ɔːl/; Old English talu is cognate to Modern English tale /teɪl/
  • Geminate fricatives such as [ff, ss] were always voiceless, while single fricatives were voiced [v, z] in some circumstances, such as between vowels. This voicing is generally not considered to have been contrastive in Old English, but it has become contrastive in Modern English. (For a more detailed explanation, see this paper: An explanation for the early phonemicisation of a voice contrast in English fricatives.) Examples: Old English ofer and dysig are cognate to Modern English over and dizzy; Old English offrian and cyssan are cognate to Modern English offer and kiss. There were not actually that many words with /ff/ in Old English, though, and even fewer survived to Modern English; it took me a bit of time to find these examples.
  • Geminate /jj/ was apparently realized as an affricate [dː͡ʒ] in Old English; this affricate continued to contrast with /j/ even after the lost of contrastive consonant length. In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /d͡ʒ/ and words with a front vowel or diphthong ending in a front vowel component. Examples: Old English hegg/hecg is cognate to Modern English hedge /hɛd͡ʒ/; Old English weg is cognate to modern English way /weɪ/
  • Geminate /gg/ developed into /g/; single /g/ developed into /w/ when at the end of a syllable or between vowels (it was realized as a fricative or approximant [ɣ], or at the end of a word [x], in these positions in Old English). In Modern English, this is reflected as a contrast between words with /g/ and words with a back vowel or diphthong ending in a back vowel component. Examples: Old English frogga/frocga is cognate to Modern English frog /frɒg/ (in some North American varieties, /frɔːg/); Old English boga is cognate to Modern English bow /boʊ/ (as in "bow and arrow")
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