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I recently had a conversation about the Spanish word "ahora", in which my conversant claimed that "ahora" is always an adverb, and never a noun.

This lead me to investigate the part of speech of similar words, both in Spanish and English (my native language). According to dictionary.com, "now" can be a noun, as in:

noun

10. the present time or moment:
"Up to now no one has volunteered."

What makes "now" a noun in this context? In the Spanish equivalent of the example ("Hasta horaahora..."), "hasta""ahora" is considered an adverb by the dictionaries I checked with.

The gist of the question: How can I know when now (or any word, for that matter--especially one which is commonly an adverb) is a noun? What test can be applied?

In the example quoted above ("Up to now...") it is not at all obvious to me why 'now' should be a noun while with, say "Until tomorrow", 'tomorrow' is an adverb. They seem like the same grammatical construct to me, so I would (apparently quite naively) expect the same part of speech to follow "Up to" or "Until."

I recently had a conversation about the Spanish word "ahora", in which my conversant claimed that "ahora" is always an adverb, and never a noun.

This lead me to investigate the part of speech of similar words, both in Spanish and English (my native language). According to dictionary.com, "now" can be a noun, as in:

noun

10. the present time or moment:
"Up to now no one has volunteered."

What makes "now" a noun in this context? In the Spanish equivalent of the example ("Hasta hora..."), "hasta" is considered an adverb by the dictionaries I checked with.

The gist of the question: How can I know when now (or any word, for that matter--especially one which is commonly an adverb) is a noun? What test can be applied?

In the example quoted above ("Up to now...") it is not at all obvious to me why 'now' should be a noun while with, say "Until tomorrow", 'tomorrow' is an adverb. They seem like the same grammatical construct to me, so I would (apparently quite naively) expect the same part of speech to follow "Up to" or "Until."

I recently had a conversation about the Spanish word "ahora", in which my conversant claimed that "ahora" is always an adverb, and never a noun.

This lead me to investigate the part of speech of similar words, both in Spanish and English (my native language). According to dictionary.com, "now" can be a noun, as in:

noun

10. the present time or moment:
"Up to now no one has volunteered."

What makes "now" a noun in this context? In the Spanish equivalent of the example ("Hasta ahora..."), "ahora" is considered an adverb by the dictionaries I checked with.

The gist of the question: How can I know when now (or any word, for that matter--especially one which is commonly an adverb) is a noun? What test can be applied?

In the example quoted above ("Up to now...") it is not at all obvious to me why 'now' should be a noun while with, say "Until tomorrow", 'tomorrow' is an adverb. They seem like the same grammatical construct to me, so I would (apparently quite naively) expect the same part of speech to follow "Up to" or "Until."

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