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In a modern civil law context, damages: A sum of money claimed or awarded in compensation for a loss or an injury: He or she sues not only for personal injury but for damages for the loss or destruction of the motor vehicle. Also sometimes compensation: Something, typically money, awarded to someone in recognition of loss, suffering, or ...
As a counterpoint to Kevin, I have heard non-Jeep branded vehicles that are of the same 'format', called "jeeps" (and in fact, would have used that word myself for the top two images). I would not use SUV for the second image as I generally think of SUVs as more of a full-size enclosed vehicle (e.g. a Tahoe or Navagator), although it obviously is a "sports ...
In the context of war the word is usually reparation It can also be used in contexts other than war ( http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reparation )
I've used “heads up!” in similar situations. For instance, a person walking with his head down in heavy foot traffic, concentrating on his phone, is about to walk into you. You can say it gently or not-so-gently depending on whether you want to warn or scold. Although in this case heads up! might literally mean raise your head up, it generally means pay ...
"On your left" "on your right" "coming up behind"
Where I live there are public paths through parks which can get quite busy with equestrian, pedestrian, and bike traffic. When approaching and passing someone from behind behind, the custom is to say: On your left! This both announces that you are behind them with the intention of passing, and that you're going to do it to the person's left side ...
I prefer: Look out, mate! or: Watch it, mate! or: Hey, look where you're going bruh.
Many of such words would be quite technical, not "primitives" or least-common denominator; and would not be essential to a " basic" vocabulary. obviate, parallel, isosceles, gastroenterologist, pahoehoe, anemometer, sphygnomometer, pyroclastic, enantiomer.... These are not "irreducible", but it takes more than one word to " reduce" them. (of couse, now ...
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