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72

Many analog gauges such as speedometers have a maximum marking which is technically not as high as you might be able to make the reading actually go. To prevent the indicator needle from going too far beyond that marking and possibly getting bent or otherwise damaged when it hits the casing, a small peg is placed at or slightly beyond the maximum marking. ...


31

I think you are referring to spoonerism : (from Wikipedia) is an error in speech or deliberate play on words in which corresponding consonants, vowels, or morphemes are switched between two words in a phrase. A similar error is metathesis: the re-arranging of sounds or syllables in a word, or of words in a sentence. Most commonly it ...


17

TL;DR: The characterization is based on history and tradition. There are many, many (some confusing) expressed differences between ship and boat, one of the pithier ones being When a ship sinks you get in a boat, when a boat sinks you get in the water. Submarines and ferries, as you noted, are boats. That would fit the above definition (most ferries ...


15

Yes, they're usually called Irreversible Binomials - Binomials for short - or Binominals. (Unfortunately, Binomials is also a mathematical term). I've read about them under the term freezes as used by John Lawler in the comments, but the majority of the literature and also grammar references that talk about this, that I'm aware of, use the term Binomials. ...


6

The word sophistication is from the Greek word sophis, which implies false or pompous wisdom. Appearing to be wise. Which is different from the Greek words sophee, sophia which mean wise, wisdom. Therefore we have in English the words sophist, sophistry and sophism. We also have the words Smarty pants Smart Aleck (more prevalent in Brit English) ...


6

It's a feature of a lot of texts exhibiting frozen style. It's a highly predictable and regular style found in newspaper headlines, signs, notices, instructions, lab reports, technical reports, legal documents, public declarations and so forth. In this kind of style in certain text-types, auxiliary verbs are regularly omitted when we can recover them from ...


5

It's called contrastive focus reduplication in a paper on the exact construction by Ghomeshi et al (2004). Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 22: 307–357, 2004. EDIT The paper is 52 pages long, the following are extracts taken from the first 8 pages. CONTRASTIVE FOCUS REDUPLICATION IN ENGLISH (THE SALAD-SALAD PAPER) ABSTRACT. This paper ...


5

It is both a rhetorical strategy and a fallacy. The rhetorical strategy is distraction, to bring the jury's attention off-task. For fallacies, Red Herring fits, since the relation of prostitution to her propensity for truth-telling is not obvious. It is also the fallacy of ad hominem attack on the witness, that is, an attack on her as a person rather than ...


4

According to dictionary.com, the term "fresher" is British slang for a freshman. I assume that's why they're using it to describe themselves as beginners. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/fresher


4

Irreversible binomials are defined as consisting of constituent A and constituent B a subclass of coordinate constructions, viz. the coordination of two single words which belong to the same form class; examples would be hard and fast, or salt and pepper. Per Arne Lohman's paper, A processing view on order in reversible and irreversible binomials ...


4

You might consider waterbody but it is a less common word and it is often spelled as water body. It covers small bodies of water too but it depends on the context also. A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface. The term body of water most often refers to large accumulations of water, such as ...


4

I would suggest that it's a mis-spelling of "weeniedom", which the ever-unreliable Urban Dictionary defines as The domain and claimed territory of a self-appointed, omnipotent Weenie. This domain is often virtual and/or electronic. Its boundaries are often unknown to anyone except the Weenie. "When "Joe" discovered I had gone into his sub-directory ...


3

I'd call such a packaged (typically derogatory) name an epithet. Merriam-Webster's definition of epithet: A word or phrase that describes a person or thing An offensive word or name that is used as a way of abusing or insulting someone From Wikipedia's article on epithet: An epithet, is a byname or a descriptive term (word or phrase), ...


3

As mentioned in a comment, collocation is relevant (albeit less specific than freezes, mentioned in John Lawler's comment). From en.wiktionary it means (linguistics, translation studies) A sequence of words or terms that co-occur more often than would be expected by chance (i.e., the statistically significant placement of particular words in a ...


3

All The Tropes, the wiki for storytelling patterns, calls each of these a medium for purposes of categorizing works that contain examples of each pattern: Live action film Live action TV series Western animated film Western animated TV series Far Eastern animation (anime) Its media headers don't distinguish CGI from hand-painted cel from digital cel from ...


3

It's not common, but sciolist seems to have the required definition. One who exhibits only superficial knowledge; a self-proclaimed expert with little real understanding. I prefer this to sophist, which I think has a suggestion of deceit rather than just ignorance or error.


3

Google Ngrams suggests that flood plain is the normal spelling, while flood plane is very rare. It was a little more common in the early 20th century, but still a fraction of the frequency of flood plain. A plain is a flat area of land, while a plane is a flat geometric object. Since flood plain refers to land areas, it makes more sense for it to be the ...


2

I'd call someone like that an intellectual fraud, poseur, pseud, phoney intellectual or — notwithstanding your reservations, which I think are feeble — pseudointellectual.


2

In the United States, one common term for a person who gets others to deal with problems is buck passer. Merriam-Webster's Eleventh Collegiate Dictionary (2003) dates the term to 1920 and (not altogether helpfully) defines it as: a person who habitually passes the buck Fortunately, in its entry for the verb pass, the Eleventh Collegiate clarifies the ...


2

All agreements to provide goods or services, or to establish a commercial relationship are legally considered contracts. Contract law requires that there is a meeting of the minds. That is, the contract (whether written or oral) must reflect what both parties understand and what is supposed to be done on each side, regarding all important areas of the ...


2

This is a damned if you do, damned if you don't fallacy. If the proactive effort works, opponents will claim it was not needed and the money was wasted. If the effort fails, the same opponents will claim not enough money was spent! Another term for this thinking is politics as usual.


2

This is one of those ugly loose definition problems that English has from time to time. The answer is pretty much "because." A boat is a watercraft of any size designed to float or plane, to work or travel on water. Small boats are typically found on inland (lakes) or in protected coastal areas. A ship is a large buoyant watercraft. Ships are generally ...


2

A less strong noun, useful for either sex, is charmer. He could be a charmer because he is intelligent, considerate, a good listener, or even because he is a musician.


2

'Large body of water' is the best way to express it in English. There is no specific word such as you are asking about that means 'large body of water' (which is vague in any event: how large is 'large'?). We have oceans, seas, gulfs, lakes, ponds, estuaries, rivers, etc.


1

Catchphrase, slogan, epithet, and sound bite are all terms about the pragmatics of Broken Britain. I.e, what the phrase is used for, politically, rhetorically, and as a media phenomenon. Its syntax, on the other hand, is simple. It's a noun phrase, consisting of an attributive adjective formed from a participle (e.g, broken, revolting, drunk) preceding, ...


1

Mutual has two meanings: Both parties understand (each party understands) The two parties share the (same) understanding This Agreement outlines the parameters of all IT services covered as they are mutually understood by the primary stakeholders This Agreement outlines the parameters of "all IT services covered as they are mutually understood by ...


1

Because there doesn't seem to be an "official" word, I looked at filmsite.org wherein animation is defined as: a form or process of filmmaking in which inanimate, static objects or individual drawings (hand-drawn or CGI) are filmed "frame by frame" or one frame at a time (opposed to being shot "live"), each one differing slightly from the previous frame, ...


1

The British Navy provides a modern definition: a ship is a vessel that leans towards the outside of a sharp turn and a boat is a vessel that leans towards the inside of a sharp turn. These characteristics arise from the pitch of the engines and the design the the hull. It is sadly not applicable to craft under sail. Source - a friend who is a naval ...


1

It's a great single-word-request, word for "something that would appear to be an exaggeration or even hyperbole but turns out to be quite true." (My brother's always doing that. "We caught a fish THIS big" (unbelievably so) ... and then he pulls out a photo of it.) It's (now) traditional with single-word-requests to give the official answer: Unfortunately ...


1

Phenomenalism conveys the idea. a theory that all knowledge is of phenomena and that what is construed to be perception of material objects is simply perception of sense-data http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/phenomenalism the view that all things, including human beings, consist simply of the aggregate of their observable, ...



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