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9

These types of sentences are referred to as presentational constructions. They consist exclusively of intransitive verbs: *There ate John a lion. (ungrammatical, transitive verb) The verbs that allow this kind of usage quite often take no Complement at all. If we have a very big, often indefinite, Subject and there is no Complement of the verb, such ...


7

It is of no use at all to users of a language as users. You can use a language your entire life without knowing what a Subject is, just like you can live your entire life without knowing anything about metabolism. But teachers trying to explain to a learner why a particular expression is wrong or why a particular expression requires a different form, or ...


7

This is an example of pro drop (short for pronoun dropping). Some languages, like Spanish, pretty much mandate it. Such languages are called pro-drop languages. In English, most grammarians would probably consider it ungrammatical, but it's pretty standard in informal speech. Regarding its occurrence in English, Wikipedia writes: English is ...


5

The 'sentence' you asked about has no overall subject. It’s an example of artistic license where the rules of grammar get broken, not due to grammatical incompetence, but for some literary reason, typically resulting in fragments of a sentence being used, as your quote demonstrates. The result here is that the sequence you asked about is not actually a ...


4

Subject: the person or thing that performs the action or incorporates the action expressed by the verb, or is in the condition indicated by the verb. While it seems the subject initiates the action (especially with transitive verbs) the verb requires a "subject" to carry out or perform the action, hence the "subject" is submitting to the "verb" or let's say, ...


4

I think that with BE we're probably better off subordinating the syntactics to the pragmatics and thinking of the two arguments on either side of the verb as something more like Topic and Comment, which are structurally assigned the syntactic roles Subject and Complement. In that sort of context there's no problem with seeing a locative as de facto Subject: ...


4

This is one of the big differences between tensed and untensed subordinate clauses. There are two untensed types -- infinitive clauses and gerund clauses -- and both can often appear without subjects, but only by one of the various rules that achieve that effect. The subjects, even if they aren't present, are still understood, and they aren't always the ...


4

First, is it a grammatically correct sentence?  Yes.  This type of sentence is very common.  As Greg Lee mentions, there are several different theories of English grammar, and different theories may label the parts of this sentence in different ways.  In the framework that I use, "to call" is an infinitive and infinitives do not ...


4

Note that I've expanded the quote to include some more context to make it clear that Faulkner is quoting someone relating an incident. Faulkner is reproducing the patterns of somewhat-convoluted speech. The main clause of the direct speech is That was it which is followed by two fragments punctuated like sentences that form an appositive to "it," ...


4

For migrant birds, which habitats are suitable during the non-breeding season influences habitat availability, population resilience to habitat loss, and ultimately survival. This is a sentence from a piece of technical academic writing from the Journal of Avian Biology. The sentence is perfectly grammatical and also makes sense. The structure of the ...


4

There are grammatical restrictions on the use of pronouns when they occur within the same sentence as co-referential noun phrases. A pronoun can co-refer with another normal noun phrase if either: it occurs after the other noun phrase or it occurs lower down in the syntactic tree than the other noun phrase. This last point means that a pronoun in a ...


3

The idea of the term subject in grammar is that which is placed under something. Object means that which is placed on top of something. If you see the verb of a sentence as the central word the subject is placed under the verb and the object is placed on top of the verb. So you get a model of the sentence structure where the sentence parts are arranged ...


3

Subjects are noun phrases, and usually have more than one word in them, but they can be just one word, if there are no modifiers. Subject is a grammatical concept restricted to languages with nominative-accusative systems, like most Indo-European languages. Languages like Basque, Georgian, Quiché, or Pitjantjatjara, which have absolutive-ergative systems, ...


3

Short answer If the phrase that is being fronted is a Complement of the verb, then it is often best to use Subject-dependent inversion, and if you don't your sentence may sound ungrammatical. If the fronted element is an Adjunct instead of a Complement, the inversion is not necessary. It will generally not give good results if the phrase that has been ...


3

No. All the semicolons should be commas. See this wonderfully handy resource, The Punctuation Guide. Semicolons go Between independent clauses when a coordinating conjunction is omitted Between independent clauses linked by a transitional expression In lists with internal commas In elliptical constructions This sentence doesn't contain any of these ...


3

Normally, I would not recommend using the passive mode, but in this case I think the passive mode would work: When the king was on his throne, he was worshipped; on horseback, he was applauded; on his deathbed, he was prayed for; in his grave, he was wept over; but when exposed as a criminal, he was despised.


2

The comment by deadrat is correct in saying that but acts as a preposition, synonymous with except in this instance. Everyone likes you but her. Everyone likes you except her. If you want to see it act as a subject, you would need a verb. At that point, but becomes a conjugation and the start of a clause. Everyone likes you, but she doesn't. ...


2

The sentence suggested by your teacher is incorrect. This creates two independent clauses pushed together without any conjunction. A comma cannot fix this because it will create a comma splice, "Then he saw the brother, he thought he was dead." Think of this sentence: "Then he ate the cake, he enjoyed it very much." People make the mistake of joining ...


2

Yes, it’s acceptable in informal speech. Given a phrase like “Me and my friend went to the movies”, I tend to think of “me and my friend” not as a subject but rather as a topicaliser, a natural shortening of “Me and my friend, we went to the movies”. Topicalisation can be introduced explicitly with prepositions like “as for” or “speaking of”, but in ...


2

All my cigarettes lit Not all my cigarettes lit. The first sentence is a positive polarity declarative sentence. The Subject of the sentence is the noun phrase all my cigarettes. In the second sentence the predeterminer all has been negated by the adverb not. This is comparable to the use of the adverb almost in Almost all my cigarettes lit. However, ...


2

Drop the 'in'. It looks like you were editing and 'in a series' got moved out of the prepositional phrase. But keep editing: 'Linked' appears twice and is redundant. 'Series' only applies if there is a large horizontal velocity. "The mat is an effective fall break. Adjacent linked mats can extend the safe landing zone."


2

The presence of the word "And" as the commencement of your second sentence is a clue that far more brutal editing is warranted to regain a leash-hold on the meaning you intend to convey. A single mat provides an effective fall break. Adjacent mats can be linked together to provide an effective fall break over a larger contiguous area.


2

The verb "is" establishes an "equality" of sorts between its subject and object. In both cases the subject comes first, it's just that there are different subjects in the two cases. Which version is "best" depends on what you want to emphasize. If it's most important to simply note that there is a critical project, the first is best. If you want to ...


2

Verb agreement would point to "me" being the subject: “And up here in the corner is me” vs “And up there in the corner are us". Accusative "me and "us" are the 'normal' forms here, the absurdly formal nominative "I" and "we" also being possible. But only the nominative "I" would be possible in the non-inverted equivalent: "I am up here in the corner". ...


2

The answer to your general question differs from theory to theory. In context free grammar, ordinary transformational grammar, and probably in traditional grammar, it's no. A single sentence structure may not have a nominal which is simultaneously subject and object. In Relational Grammar, however, this is possible, and it might also be possible in ...


2

I want him [to call me tomorrow]. Yes, him belongs syntactically in the matrix clause as object of want. But semantically, it belongs solely in the embedded clause as subject. Him is not an argument of want. What I want is not him, but him to call me tomorrow. Syntactically, him is object of want, but semantically it relates only to the subordinate call ...


2

No, there is not a different word. Historical explanation: Who vs whom is one of the few relics in English of the Indo-European case system: others are he/him, I/me etc. Most nouns and pronouns in most Indo-European languages distinguish between the subject (or nominative) and object (or accusative) case - except for neuter nouns and pronouns. I cannot ...


2

There isn't a different word, per se. You could use "which" if the context indicates that there is a clear choice between a small number of things to look at. That's an entirely different word, though, and it changes the meaning slightly. I am guessing that that's not what you are looking for. Neuter nouns and pronouns in Indo-European languages never ...


2

After the conjunction "and" you can change the tense.



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