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10

Out of context the sentence StackExchange is the website I wanted to win is inherently ambiguous because of the nature of the verb to win, which is ambitransitive. In other words, win can be both transitive and intransitive: She won the award. (transitive) She won. (intransitive) So if Polly is a cat and I read the decontextualised sentence Polly ...


8

That depends on what you want to say. If you are talking about politics in general, use the singular: Politics both fascinates and repulses him. If, however, you are referring to specific politics, for example those of a person, use the plural: John's politics both fascinate and repulse him. This is because politics can mean different things. The ...


6

Consider 'Lots of cheese is good for you' vs. 'Lots of cheeses are good for you.' The 'is' and 'are' cannot be interchanged. Evidently the plurality of 'lots of X' is determined by X, not by 'lots.' Whether this rule 'makes sense' is another question, but so long as it holds, there is no contradiction with the other rule you described as applied to your ...


5

There is my biscuit. My biscuit is there. There is one biscuit left. (1) and (2) are locatives, and there is a locative adverb indicating the location of the biscuit. The structure is identical, but (1) is transformed from (2). Locative sentences can do that: My sister is over there, by the weeping willow. Over there, by the weeping ...


5

In this sentence the subject appears after the verb. If you rewrite the sentence with normal subject-verb word order--My resume and cover letter are attached--you can plainly see that the subject of the verb is plural, therefore the verb must be plural. The word "attached" is a subject complement or predicate adjective (terminology varies), not an object. ...


5

According to the Oxford Online English Dictionary, definition 2.1: Attain or extend to (a specified point, level, or condition): unemployment reached a peak in 1933 [NO OBJECT]: in its native habitat it will reach to about 6 m in height Attain certainly can mean both directions, so I think it can technically be used in that fashion. As far ...


4

Sentence 3: Existential Subjects: Words, Phrases and Functions [A Comparison of Sentences and analysis of Sentences 1 & 2 forthcoming] There's one biscuit left. So now the burning question is: What is the subject of this existential sentence? This isn't as easy as it looks. If we want to answer this question we need to really understand what a ...


4

This is an interesting question. In the Original Poster's sentence she is indeed the nominative case pronoun. It is also true that we associate this case marking with the subjects of finite verbs - such as the verb is in the original example. However, occasionally we find nominative case pronouns in non-subject positions. Here she is in fact not the subject ...


4

Subjects are inferred in practically every untensed subordinate clause (i.e, gerunds and infinitives). In the following sentences, what is the subject of the infinitive to take out? How can you tell? Bill told me to take out the garbage. Bill promised me to take out the garbage. I was told by Bill to take out the garbage. I don't want to take out the ...


4

Not all verbs need an object. Change can take an object, but it does not need one. Compare the transitive: John has changed his house. He redecorated it. with the intransitive: John has changed. Becoming a father made him mature. So you do not need a object with change. Something or someone can change, meaning that they become (something) ...


3

Wolves, hunted to extinction in Wyoming and Montana in the twentieth century, occupy a vital place in the natural cycle of the area. A straightforward test for subject-hood is to make a yes/no question and see what inverts with the auxiliary verb: Do [Wolves, hunted to extinction in Wyoming and Montana in the twentieth century] occupy a vital place in ...


3

Although there is technically ambiguity in your original phrase, the context makes it very obvious which meaning you meant. However, if you are really desperate for a phrase with no ambiguity I would go for: I wanted Stack Exchange to win


3

Traditionally, a clause is indeed a finite verb and all its dependencies. The subject of the sentence is he, the (direct) object his daughter. The verb let is special in that it often has an object and an infinitive as a tertiary complement (third thingy that strongly depends on it, besides subject and object). You could analyse the infinitive after let as ...


3

If you mean: can a person that is referred to by a direct object noun phrase of some verb also be referred to by a subject noun phrase of another verb, then sure. Why not? But if you mean: can a noun phrase simultaneously be the direct object of one verb and the subject of another verb, the answer is unclear. This is possible in Relational Grammar (and ...


3

Though the underlying word picture of reach is extending or stretching out, it has embraced metaphoric applications for a long time: Old English ræcan, reccan "reach out, stretch out, extend, hold forth," also "succeed in touching, succeed in striking; address, speak to," also "offer, present, give, grant," from West Germanic *raikjan ...


3

The correct formulation would be "people who have other opinions." "Who" because it is the subject performing the action ("whom" is only used as an object, e.g., "those about whom we have opinions"), and "have" because it's the proper conjugation for a plural subject like "people," the antecedent that "who" refers to.


2

If you take 's to be a normal copular, then what is a subject-complement. e.g. What is a car? What is your name? Both a car and your name are subjects, similarly to how subject-auxiliary inversion works. However I would argue that such analysis is incorrect, as "what's the matter?" has become idiomatic and simply means "what's wrong?". So you can, ...


2

This sentence has two clauses, and therefore two verbs. Starting with the subordinate infinitive clause (For me) to train them, the verb is train. The subordinate clause is subject of the main clause, which has is my goal as its verb phrase, with is, an auxiliary form of be, as the only other verb in the sentence. There are two predicates, since there's ...


2

To train them -> Subject is (be) -> verb my cause -> complement


2

The problem here—if there is one—is comparable to that of a sentence that runs as follows: The compression of images and arranging words most effectively are of the essence of poetry. In both instance, the reader understands what is being said but wonders why the author didn't take the opportunity (or make the effort) to bring the dual subject into ...


2

I think the term sought after is arguments of the verb. This term doesn't only refer to the different elements in action verb constructions, but in any clausal construction. In the Original Poster's example John, Jack and money are the three arguments of the verb GIVE. Enthusiasm is not one of the arguments of the verb. There is no special grammatical ...


2

Different linguistic frameworks call them different things. The two most common are, I think, constituents and arguments. Note that in your example only John, Jack and money are arguments. from his wallet is a relative clause which modifies money, and it doesn't have any kind of similar role as the arguments.


2

In some analyses of syntax these consitutents of a clause (or of subordinate constituents) are called NPs, a term which derives from “noun phrase” but has a somewhat larger scope: a “noun phrase” is a phrase headed by a noun, while “NP” includes phrases of other sorts which can act in the same syntactic role as noun phrases. Note that an NP (or “noun ...


2

Note how the original is constructed: Neither of these objections applies to the version of contractualism that I am defending. The general specification of the scope of morality which it implies seems to me to be this: morality applies to a being if the notion of justification to a being of that kind makes sense. The author is dealing with some ...


2

Part 1: subject tests What's the subject, grammatically speaking, of these sentences? There is my biscuit! My biscuit is there! There is one biscuit left. At first glance, sentences 1 and 2, seem to be about the LOCATION of the biscuit. Both sentences could be replies for example to the question: Where's my biscuit? Where's my biscuit? ...


2

It seems that you have a very good ear for colloquial English. I wish my ear for the languages I've studied was as good. The grammatical construction you're asking about is the "predicate nominative" -- and as you already noted, it is very common to use the objective case even when the subjective is called for. To look at your specific examples: "They ...


2

Your instinct is a good one. You may hear "Yes, this is she," if you call a professional office, but most American speakers would say "This is Mary" or, "Speaking" to avoid sounding stuffy. "Hey, it's me," is a given, due to the informality of hey, probably. "They believed that the thief was I," would probably be avoided by saying, "They believed that I ...


2

I don't know about "correct", but they're grammatical. They're called accusative-ing or ACC-ing complements (by analogy to possessive-ing or POSS-ing complements, with which they seem to alternate).


2

What is there to eat? The subject is clearly what. Fairly recently, some linguists have chosen to call there the subject in simple existential sentences, like this: There is one person in the room. But this causes problems, as in your example. The main reasons why they seem to want to label there the subject are that it is the first word in a ...


2

There are a number of ways you could structure this sentence, all of which would convey your point precisely as you mean it. Firstly, you could say "I hope that StackExchange wins [the Best Website Award]". This implies that, of the various potential 'nominees' for the Best Website Award, you want StackExchange to win the award. Alternatively, you could say ...



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