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Here the plus and minus signs refer to the potential with lower right well and to the one with lower left well, respectively. I'm not sure we can do any better. Why does your title contain auxiliaries, by the way ? I fail to see how auxiliaries could come in handy here.


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Thanks for this question. I sometimes wonder and would sometimes want reliable references for some language styles. I saw an article Possessive with Two Nouns which says-- "The possessive case can be confusing, especially when two nouns are doing the possessing. Fortunately, The Chicago Manual of Style sheds light on this conundrum. [emphasis mine] ...


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The English verb write has three* basic meanings: to draw the shape of letters to record words using written (as opposed to spoken or sign) language to compose a text The second meaning encompasses writing by hand, typing into a computer, as well as writing words using the exhaust fumes of an airplane. The third meaning encompasses thinking about what ...


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Writing encompasses the larger image, and typing is merely one of the activities involved. Writing includes planning, drafting, own proofreading and editing - while typing doesn't imply creative activity. You may be typing columns of numbers into a spreadsheet, or typing the text your boss is dictating, and it doesn't constitute writing. And contrarily, you ...


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As noted, names are names. We are all familiar with American Express and The Ignatian Press. It would seem to me to be nitpicking to question why the ian or an suffix is attached other than to honour the association or to reflect a modality. 'Albert' can just as easily attribute one of his habits by adding that suffix to his name and saying "It's an ...


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Scope and Summary The question concerns the punctuation ‘rules’ for insertion of spaces at the either sides of em-dashes, and in particular whether adjacent quotation marks influence this. Australian or British usage is requested. Valid criticism of my initial answer provoked me to survey the different typographic styles of dashes employed as pauses in ...


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Using a hyphen is the wrongest thing to do here. Ideally, the sentence would sound something like this: "You can use the types built into the library". However, if the author meant that the types are somehow built TO the library, which is already grammatically wrong, he should at least have written, "types built in to the library", as a verb and a ...


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Sorry if this is a bad answer since I'm new here, I personally think that it's how much emphasis you put onto it, if it's like shouting like in AAAAAAAAAAAlllen! it would be like that, but if it's something like Ch-ch-ch-ch-ch , it would have lowercase letters. I don't really have any references though, just my opinion. Here's the difference between one ...


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One piece of style guide advice that directly addresses your question appears in The Chicago Manual of Style, fifteenth edition (2003): 6.99 Glosses or translations. Parentheses are used to enclose glosses of unfamiliar terms or translations of foreign terms—or, if the term is given in English, to enclose the original word. ... [Relevant ...


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I will quote sections from the Chicago Manual of Style (13th edition). This is an American source. Em dash (—) is used: for a break in thought (§ 5.83) for an element added to give emphasis or explanation (§ 5.84) for a defining or enumerating complementary element (“He could forgive every insult but the last—the snub by his ...


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You can write: I would really like to learn what you have to say about X. It is a little more formal and has the connotation of getting actually new information on a subject matter and not just an opinion.


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I would really like to know what you have to say about X. Do I even dare define that. You know when you see it. You know when you hear it. You know when you touch it.


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Some alternatives are learn, find out, or know, for instance: I would really like to find out what you think about X. I like these because they work in any medium (speech, text, etc.). If it's a context where a direct question is acceptable, you could also just say: What do you think about X? (P.S. I'm very new around here, so please be patient ...


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There are three kinds of horizontal "dash." The hyphen which is used as a connective device between words and parts of words. A space is used before and after the hyphen. The en-dash which is used with numbers and numerical applications such as the horizontal bar between the numerator and the denominator in a "nut" fraction. An en-dash is also used in ...


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The word "see" fits in semantically with your example: I would really like to see what you have to say about X. This has a nice two-fold meaning, as Cambridge dictionary includes a meaning of "to understand" under the entry for "see": [transitive verb]: to understand, know, or realize and you would also literally use your eyes to see (read) the ...


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Honestly, most of English grammar is subjective. The choice to put a definition in parenthesis is perfectly valid - at most it is a stylistic choice. Despite this, it is generally more widely accepted to offset a definition using an appositive phrase than to awkwardly integrate it into a sentence using parenthesis.


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You ask: Is there a style guide (preferably for Australia or the UK) that addresses this? Or is it just an overlook on Word's part? Consider the (Australian) Monash University style guide on Dashes (dots inserted here primarily for formatting): At Monash, we use en dashes ( – ) rather than em dashes (—). ... En dashes within sentences have one ...


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Suppose that instead of following a style guide (like the Associated Press Stylebook) that called for putting book, movie, and TV show titles in quotation marks, you were following one (like The Chicago Manual of Style) that recommended putting them in italics. And suppose that you had to punctuate and style the following sentence for maximum coherence, ...


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In my opinion, the comma is not only unnecessary, it is wrong. Here is a good source for rules governing the use of commas: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/607/02/ The only rule here that might conceivably justify the use of a comma is rule #7, concerning the separation of two contrasted elements, but the examples given are not at all like the ...


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Generally I would have said no, but I’ve noticed that the extensive use of ellipses was a distinctive feature of middlebrow historian Bruce Catton’s work. See, for example, page 26 of this best-seller of the 1950s, where he begins a paragraph(!) with them. So maybe I would say, use them, if you have a distinctive narrative style.


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Yes, to all of the above - in math and lists and proper direct quotation, etc., but thank you @Delta Escher: you clearly describe the "why" of not adding it. (I recently almost lost my marbles trying to study for an English test that included formal essays - the tutors I worked with all said ixnay on the "evocative" stuff.) To impart feelings to the reader ...


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Your paragraph correctly punctuated: I find an airplane's symbolic freedom appealing - whether it is soaring through the sky, industriously filling and disgorging passengers(,) or exultantly defying gravity on take-off, it remains independent and far-reaching in all of its manoeuvres. In English, semi-colons are only used as a way to separate linked ...


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Ellipses have only one place in most formal writing: inside a direct quote. Then they have two uses: to reporting halting speech, and if you omit some words. But in the latter case they should be used only in non-controversial cases, as they can easily be used to subvert the original author/speaker's meaning (for example "these are... the droids you are ...


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In a formal essay, you should not use ellipses. Ellipses are a form that is mostly used in fiction, as it implies a dramatic pause, would could both upset the serious tone of the essay and imply feelings towards the reader, which a formal essay is not intended to do. If you feel as if the ellipse is intended to provoke a feeling from the reader you should ...



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