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Mostly no commas around the 2nd "perhaps" these days. See at Google Books: "Perhaps you have" "or perhaps you" e.g., A Primer of Mathematical Writing: Being a Disquisition on ... - Page 104 Steven George Krantz - 1997 Perhaps you have had a fight with the candidate in question and feel that you cannot offer an objective opinion; perhaps ... ...


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to instill respect and knowledge of our policies To me the latter sounds like I'm saying to just "instill respect" with no reference to the subject (policies) This is basically correct, the respect here would be understood as respect "in general" or maybe "for (some) authority" depending on the context. Nonetheless, it would still probably be ...


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As a native Canadian, I have taken english courses through all my elementary, secondary, and (currently) post-secondary education. Never in my life have I been taught to formulate sentences like this, nor memorize any form of structural template for building sentences. However I am fluent in french as well, and have studied at a variety of french immersion ...


1

There are several options, as have been mentioned in other answers, but I'd like to point out a couple of subtleties. If the alternative name name is a nickname, it's common to see it displayed in quotes between the two names; for example, Lt. Peter "Horse" Caulk was an instructor in the film Top Gun: However, this is only usual if the name is used often ...


1

You might like to know about Context Free Phrase Structure Grammar (CFPSG), which is similar to the approach you're taking, but it allows for intermediate categories, like NP. I'll give an example reformulation for your example: S -> NP VP NP -> D N VP -> V AJ P CNP D -> an N -> apple V -> is AJ -> red P -> in CNP -> color If there is a way to derive a ...


2

Essentially, the answer is "No". Grammar (both in English and other languages) does follow rules, but they are not the simple ones you seem to be looking for. For example, Apple is red in colour could be 'valid' if Apple is a name: otherwise it needs to be replaced by Apples are red in colour normally, or An apple is red (in colour) if the context makes it ...


0

With "are" appended, the "what" is a relative pronoun, assuming the construction is a headless relative clause, as it is sometimes called. The analogy is between Describe [that [which the data are]] and Describe [ __ [what the data are]] where the "__" marks the position of the missing head of the relative clause construction. Another term ...


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This is what is mentioned in this famous grammar, which in turns quotes a great novelist: ... we have come to feel that the simple infinitive is to be used with rather ...: 'Rather than disturb him she went for a light-box and his cigar-case to his bedroom' (Thackeray, Pendennis, I, Ch. XVIII) George Curme, A Grammar of the English ...


2

I cannot explain it in grammatical terms but perhaps I can state it in logical terms. The "main verb" in this case is "added". It's past tense because the result of the study did in fact add to the controversy. Therefore the "parallel treatment" for the hypothetical is not possible because the hypothetical did not occur and cannot be expressed in the past ...


2

None of them. I would use: This method is hard for students to understand/comprehend. or This method is not easily understood by students. I wouldn't use comprehend in this second version. Since it uses the past tense, it would have to be comprehended, and I find that a cumbersome word for some reason.


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I would use: This method is challenging/difficult for students to understand/comprehend Did you see the following question already answered which might aid with your understanding? :-) Difference between "understand" and "comprehend"


-2

Yes, you can see something dangling out there:-) Possible recasts: Considering its empirical complements together with the complexity, extensiveness and dynamics of the city logistic system, we adopted the middle-out approach adopted for the following hierarchy construction. In consideration of its empirical complements together with the complexity, ...


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If you take considering to be a past participle, then, you have a dangling modifier. There may be reasons, however, to think it is a preposition. Other prepositions that came from participles include given, provided, and depending.


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You are certainly correct that the sense of the sentence His voice is so monotone that it lulls me to sleep every time I hear it. amounts to this: His voice is so monotonous that [his voice] lulls me to sleep every time I hear [his voice]. The wording with the two occurrences of it rendered as their referent his voice is considerably more ...


1

The backwards construction is actually easier than you are suspecting. These are just examples of elliptical sentences: sentences which have had part removed as understood. In all of these, the ellipsis is "to be". I believed him [to be] insane. He thought me [to be] incapable of doing so. I wished them [to be] dead. Elliptical clauses are very ...


4

I believed him insane. He thought me incapable of doing so. I wished them dead. Many verbs take more than one complementation pattern. These verbs above are best thought of as verbs which can take different types of complements, because there are many verbs that take infinitival clauses as complements which cannot be "reduced" in this way. For ...


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I think that you don't need to tie the example sentences together with semicolons if you clearly present them as freestanding alternatives at the outset. The key to doing that successfully is to note explicitly in the lead-in that the quoted sentences are alternative wordings, not a dialogue or a series of things to say consecutively. Here is one approach: ...


1

Only the first set is correct. E.g., the first sentence shows the existence of a meeting in the afternoon, thus "be" is natural. The 2nd set is totally wrong. Don't try to re-invent or rethink the English language. At your level, find good models and follow them. You could say, using "have": We /will have/will be having/ a meeting in the afternoon. ...


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First of all, do you have any issues with The means with which you can create your art are available to you. or with: The means which you can create your art with are available to you. ? They are both available. Also available is this pair: The means with which to create your art are available to you. The means which to create your art with are ...


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Shoe has already answered. Here is some additional information that may or may not clarify things further. The first important thing to understand is that the relative pronoun is part of the relative clause, not of the main clause. Recently, even some native English speakers seem to be getting confused about this, as some weird new practices around who/whom ...


5

You are starting from a false premise if you believe that there is a position where the preposition "is supposed to be", particularly if you think that the correct position is "at the end of the sentence" (called preposition stranding). Indeed, there are some people who regard this as an error. In fact, the position of the pronoun in relative constructions ...


0

You could say "My three fellow students and I are most interested in renting the villa." Here it is clear that "my three fellow students and I" is a group, and you use the plural. You can test your sentences by moving thing around. "I, together with my three fellow students, am interested..." This is fine, but sounds archaic or stilted. If you try this ...


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To avoid the repetition of "should" and to make the sentence feel less heavy, I'd go for: Should the doctrine of democracy be proved to be an important and effective mean to control the government, reforming it were/is to be avoided, as this might limit its effectiveness. or: If the doctrine of democracy were proved to be an important and effective mean ...


1

Both the sentences are equally correct. The former is used more in dialogues or poetry, the latter is a statement. The writer may write - "Forever shall I remain indebted to....". The use also is grammatically correct. Here of the sentence has a tinge of declaration. So we may consider it correct. The normal order of the sentence would have been "Forever I ...


5

When the usual subject-verb order is inverted, it is called inversion. It occurs naturally in interrogative sentences, e.g. "Were you here yersterday?"; in stories with direct speech, e.g. "Hi", said the rabbit.. In your particular example, the inversion is used for emphasis, putting it on the word forever, which is brought to the beginning of the sentence - ...


1

You don't need a comma anywhere in there. Everything is there, including the time and the date. There is no additional information, for example where it will be, which I assume you already know where it will be by context. It seems, though, like they can take out the "the" because grammatically speaking, you don't really need it.


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If it is a resume you are writing I would not use the word liaise instead of coordinated or more commonly understood word. Why? 1) It sounds very pretentious. 2) The word is a back-formation from the liaison, and earlier in its life (the early 20th cent.) it was used as a slang by the military folks. 3) Mark Twain said, "When there is a nickel word ...



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