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You are starting from a false premise if you believe that there is a position where the preposition "is supposed to be", particularly if you think that the correct position is "at the end of the sentence" (called preposition stranding). Indeed, there are some people who regard this as an error. In fact, the position of the pronoun in relative constructions ...


4

I believed him insane. He thought me incapable of doing so. I wished them dead. Many verbs take more than one complementation pattern. These verbs above are best thought of as verbs which can take different types of complements, because there are many verbs that take infinitival clauses as complements which cannot be "reduced" in this way. For ...


2

Essentially, the answer is "No". Grammar (both in English and other languages) does follow rules, but they are not the simple ones you seem to be looking for. For example, Apple is red in colour could be 'valid' if Apple is a name: otherwise it needs to be replaced by Apples are red in colour normally, or An apple is red (in colour) if the context makes it ...


2

I cannot explain it in grammatical terms but perhaps I can state it in logical terms. The "main verb" in this case is "added". It's past tense because the result of the study did in fact add to the controversy. Therefore the "parallel treatment" for the hypothetical is not possible because the hypothetical did not occur and cannot be expressed in the past ...


2

None of them. I would use: This method is hard for students to understand/comprehend. or This method is not easily understood by students. I wouldn't use comprehend in this second version. Since it uses the past tense, it would have to be comprehended, and I find that a cumbersome word for some reason.


2

The possessive pronouns that end in the sound /-s/ or /-z/, spell it <-s> with no apostrophe (with the exception of whose and one's). However, not all possessive pronouns end in the sound /-s/ or /-z/. In the case of her(s), we use her before a noun, and hers on its own: This is her watch. This watch is hers. Hers is the red one. It ...


1

Business can be an uncountable noun, when referring to the activity in general. But it can also be a countable noun, when referring to a specific instance, like a corporation or a single-proprietorship. "He has/owns many businesses" would be correct if using the second sense.


1

You might like to know about Context Free Phrase Structure Grammar (CFPSG), which is similar to the approach you're taking, but it allows for intermediate categories, like NP. I'll give an example reformulation for your example: S -> NP VP NP -> D N VP -> V AJ P CNP D -> an N -> apple V -> is AJ -> red P -> in CNP -> color If there is a way to derive a ...


1

If you take considering to be a past participle, then, you have a dangling modifier. There may be reasons, however, to think it is a preposition. Other prepositions that came from participles include given, provided, and depending.


1

The backwards construction is actually easier than you are suspecting. These are just examples of elliptical sentences: sentences which have had part removed as understood. In all of these, the ellipsis is "to be". I believed him [to be] insane. He thought me [to be] incapable of doing so. I wished them [to be] dead. Elliptical clauses are very ...


1

Only the first set is correct. E.g., the first sentence shows the existence of a meeting in the afternoon, thus "be" is natural. The 2nd set is totally wrong. Don't try to re-invent or rethink the English language. At your level, find good models and follow them. You could say, using "have": We /will have/will be having/ a meeting in the afternoon. ...


1

As Edwin Ashworth explains in his extremely well-informed comments above, the wording "look at here" simply isn't used in standard idiomatic English. But it certainly has been used in various nonstandard and informal varieties of English. Harold Wentworth, American Dialect Dictionary (1949) has this relevant entry: Look-a-here, Lookit(here), Looky ...


1

There are several options, as have been mentioned in other answers, but I'd like to point out a couple of subtleties. If the alternative name name is a nickname, it's common to see it displayed in quotes between the two names; for example, Lt. Peter "Horse" Caulk was an instructor in the film Top Gun: However, this is only usual if the name is used often ...



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