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29

The passage is funny because the Mock Turtle acts as an authority figure but uses abnormal logic and reason. This pretense of authority and twisting of logic are ongoing motifs of Alice in Wonderland. By saying, "we called him Tortoise [ˈtʰɔː təs] because he taught us [ˈtʰɔt əs]", the Mock Turtle claims that this similarity of pronunciation is a valid ...


26

This is a pun that needs to be understood in its context. Although he was a Turtle, his pupils called him a Tortoise, because: 'We called him a Tortoise because he taught us!' said the Mock Turtle angrily: 'really you are....' It's a pun by Caroll. It seems that Americans don't get this pun, because the American pronunciation of "tortoise" differs ...


19

Broadly, English accents are divided into two categories, rhotic and non-rhotic. All English accents were originally rhotic, and the R sound was typically articulated as an alveolar trill, in contrast with the alveolar approximant of most contemporary dialects. Non-rhotic accents began developing in the Middle English period, and were commonplace by the ...


16

From what I understand, hour, fire, hire, layer, rhythm, etc., are all examples of words which are not easily classifiable. But, according to this linguist, Hour and fire are generally considered to be monosyllabic words containing a triphthong. Wikipedia further confirms this in a couple of its articles. Triphthong (WP): English in British ...


15

Tortoises are a species of turtle. A tortoise is a turtle. But a turtle is not explicitly a tortoise. In that respect they are the same. However, tortoises are land animals while turtles are amphibious. That's the major difference. Edit: The context above isn't making reference to the tortoise animal. They called him tortoise (pronounced "taught us") ...


15

Merriam-Webster (usually a good guide for rhotic US accents) gives \ˈwu̇s-tə(r)-ˌshir, -shər also -ˌshī(-ə)r\.  The OED doesn’t give a rhotic alternative at all, just /ˈwʊstəʃə(r)/.  Checking a few random other sources, I can’t find any suggesting that the first r should be pronounced. I’d guess (fairly confidently) that a rhotic BrE speaker would say ...


12

The difference you're describing is between rhotic and non-rhotic accents. In the UK, rhotic accents have been declining since the 16th century, although they still persist in the West and Southwest. English was already established in the North American colonies before the decline in rhoticity, which is why it's been preserved in the US and Canada. I think ...


12

Just so you know, modern British English doesn't sound much like English would have sounded like when Australia or the US/Canada was colonized. In fact, many Southeastern US accents are closer to British English from the 16-1700s than British English is today. The accent from Tangier Island, Virginia (video) is about as close to British English from the ...


12

I know nothing about Haiku, but I can tell you some general things to think about in terms of the syllable in general. Unfortunately, the syllable is one of those concepts that is difficult to define precisely and uncontroversially in terms of its details, depsite it being one of the few phonological phenomena that your "average" speaker has a good degree ...


12

It would appear that the word you’re looking for is L-vocalization, which, to quote the wikipedia page on the topic, “is a process by which an [l] sound is replaced by a vowel or semivowel sound”, which appears to be what is being described here, specifically with regards to English L-vocalization — where “an /l/ sound occurring at the end of a word or ...


10

Yet another edit: The schwa symbols reported in your image are slightly different from the one I know and the reason is that they denote the Rhotic version of the schwa sound, especially present in American English. The symbol is ɚ and it appears in words such as better. This is not the only variant but it was the one related to your question. They are ...


10

In Received Pronunciation, Standard* British English and most New Zealand accents, /r/ is only pronounced when it precedes a vowel sound, so the “r” in “heart” is not pronounced. But in Standard* American English and in many UK regional accents the /r/ is pronounced. That’s why we include it in the spelling. When the /r/ is pronounced it is known as a ...


10

For RP, doesn't khan, con, corn work? If you allow widely-known foreign foods, how about pawed, pod, pad, where pad is as in pad thai (and that one even works for rhotic accents).


10

Not that everything I learned in school was true, but I remember being taught that most dictionaries – at least print dictionaries – broke words into syllables, and this was one of those things that dictionaries were useful for. So, one could always count the number of •'s, and add one, and get the number of syllables in a word: One dictionary's own ...


8

In practically all dialects of (British) English, the word "idea" would generally be followed by an 'r' sound when followed by another word beginning with a vowel. So for example in saying "it was his idea and decision", this would usually be pronounced "idea-r-and decision". The phenomenon occurs in many places where you have a word ending in a vowel ...


8

Adding r's to the end of words is something odd I first noticed as a child with my grandmother. Idea became "idear," "Ella" became "Eller," etc. I assumed it to be part of her Southern upbringing until I heard Billy Joel sing about "Brender and Eddie" in the "Ballad of Brenda and Eddie" segment of his "Scenes from an Italian Restaurant." Apparently this ...


8

As reported on Wikipedia (Rhotic and non-rhotic accents), English had become non-rhotic by the end of the 18th century; John Walker used the spelling ar for the pronunciation of aunt in 1775, and reported caad as pronunciation of card in 1791. British colonization of the Americas began in 1607 in Virginia, even though there had been previous attempts in ...


8

"What causes that sound?" - one could just as well ask why the American English speakers -don't- pronounce it. A reasonable response would be that it's not spelled that way, but to counter that, there's all sorts of pronunciations in English that "aren't spelled that way". But to answer directly, the standard dialect of British English is non-rhotic ...


8

New Yorkers. Non-rhotic dialect? Yes. Dropping /h/ from /hju/-initial words? Yes. It's not just "something like" /ˈjumə/; that is the stereotypical New York City pronunciation of humor.


7

Non-rhotic may be what you're looking for: English pronunciation can be divided into two main accent groups: a rhotic (pronounced /ˈroʊtɨk/, sometimes /ˈrɒtɨk/) speaker pronounces a rhotic consonant in words like hard; a non-rhotic speaker does not. That is, rhotic speakers pronounce /r/ in all positions, while non-rhotic speakers pronounce /r/ only if ...


6

OK going off the top of my head: "Standard" British English has just non-rhoticity out of the four you mention. Cockney (naturally) has all four. The dialects around where I grew up (in the south of England), have all the features except (usually) Th-fronting. Scottish dialects are generally rhotic, often have T-glottalisation, but usually not the others. ...


6

For one thing, there are dictionaries from that time that indicate pronunciation, and we can learn from how they write down pronunciation. For example, I have heard Walker's Critical Pronouncing Dictionary cited as a source on that matter.


6

In many dialects of American English, there is no difference between these two words except perhaps a slight difference in length, which is not especially significant. The phonetic rendering that you're looking at is probably slanted towards a British accent. In British English, the /r/ sound is usually not pronounced as a separate segment at the end of a ...


6

In British and American English, the sound of the letters highlighted in red is generally /ə/; what changes is the pronunciation of the r, which may alter the pronunciation of the preceding vowel, such as in /əːθ/ where the /əː/ sound is longer than the /ə/ sound (that is the meaning of ː placed after ə). Word | American English | British ...


6

The CMU Pronouncing Dictionary gives an American English pronunciation for linearly: http://www.speech.cs.cmu.edu/cgi-bin/cmudict/?in=linearly&stress=-s L IH1 N IY0 ER0 L IY0 In International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) this would be /ˈlɪniːɚliː/ In the American Heritage Dictionary-style pronunciation respelling it would be \lĭnēərlē\ In the Wikipedia ...


5

RP is indeed non-rhotic, and hence syllable-finall 'r's are not generally pronounced. In your section question, English has a phenomenon whereby phrase-final voiced fricatives are commonly devoiced. So when pronounced before a pause, a final -s will generally be devoiced. However, it still carries some features of its underlying "voiced" nature, for example ...


5

The Wikipedia article on rhotacism gives one definition of that word as “the inability to or difficulty in pronouncing r”.


5

Notice that when pronouncing, rabbit, barrow or ruler the lips are pushed outward forming a small "oh" shape, while when pronouncing heart the lips to do not move like while the tongue is pushed up against the inside face (lingual) of the upper teeth. Try pronouncing heart with the lips out forming an "oh" and see if that feels natural-- it doesn't. They ...


5

An alternative to LissyNumber's answer is "velarisation" associated with a "dark L". I supposed you could call this a velarising speaker.


5

I'm from Worcester, I was born in Worcester. Common Worcester is a hybrid dialect of rural West Country with a substantial hint of Brummie/Black Country. Locals including myself naturally exaggerate R's or include invisible R's at the end of many words. The prenounciation for locals and yourself should simply be 'Wuster'. (Wuss-ter) 'Wustershear'. Easy. ...



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