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That and Which Relative clauses with which or that usually modify nouns. The end result is that the original noun becomes one big Noun Phrase and functions just like a large noun. Do you remember the volcano [which erupted whilst we were on holiday]? Here we see the noun volcano being modified by which ... holiday. The whole Noun Phrase volcano which ...


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That always needs to refer to another word or clause in the context, what doesn't have to do that. What is also used to form questions: what do you think? You don't ask "that do you think?" A simple "trick" I use myself is that you can usually replace "what" by "that which" without changing the meaning: 1) He will do anything that is needed. or He will ...


2

I don't understand why you want to use find instead of think or believe. If you're stressing your finding, you shouldn't put it in a non-restrictive relative clause. Relative clauses of any kind are for backgrounded presupposed material, not important matters. Think or believe -- besides meaning the same thing -- have the advantage that they can both take ...


3

''If he had any sense, he would do this.'' Leave your opinion of the subjects smartness implied. It works even better in the past tense; ''If he had any sense, he would have done this.''


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Your original sentence doesn't sound awkward or clumsy to me. The relative clause “which I don't find/consider him (to be)” is perfectly normal and common. It is somewhat formal in register, but that's not because of the relative clause-ness of it—the construction find/consider X to be Y is just a bit above normal, colloquial speech in register. The more ...


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It sounds like what you mean is If he were smart, he would do this, but I fear he is not. or If he were smart, which I fear he is not, he would do this.


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A very basic but easy way to understand is: "What" relates to asking a question and "That" relates to making a statment. So in "All what is needed....." you are asking one or all the questions "what is needed?, Is this all?, Are all these .......... that is needed for......?" In "All that is needed..." your making the statment "All of this is needed ...


0

Stand is not commonly used with pessimism. Say the situation is you are having a conversation. The other party says something pessimistic. You do not react to her statement. "I did not react to her pessimism." or "I did not react to her pessimistic statement." or "I stood by and did not react."


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[This is an important question because of all the folks visiting this site for guidance, who may well pass answers on to other students and writers. I myself in my pre-linguist days used to fall victim to this 'rule'. I have total sympathy for the Original Poster, as I do for my former self, and all literature, EFL students and authors who are confronted ...



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