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Stand is not commonly used with pessimism. Say the situation is you are having a conversation. The other party says something pessimistic. You do not react to her statement. "I did not react to her pessimism." or "I did not react to her pessimistic statement." or "I stood by and did not react."


[This is an important question because of all the folks visiting this site for guidance, who may well pass answers on to other students and writers. I myself in my pre-linguist days used to fall victim to this 'rule'. I have total sympathy for the Original Poster, as I do for my former self, and all literature, EFL students and authors who are confronted ...


There is no clause in the sentences. The first infinitives in both sentences are adjectival which cannot be separated from the noun phrases which begin the two sentences to form the subjects of to be verbs is and is respectively. The second elements after to be verbs are infinitive phrases which perform the functions as the complements to the subjects. There ...


To me, "the apples and oranges, [which / that] were rotting" can only be applied to both fruits as the lack of a separate determiner causes me to parse it as the (apples and oranges). By adding an extra determiner, the situation changes, and in most cases, the clause would be applied just to the latter: (the apples) and (the oranges) and the clause would ...


The Wikipedia article on English determiners contains: Relative determiners: which (quite formal and archaic, as in He acquired two dogs and three cats, which animals were then...); also whichever and whatever (which are of the type that form clauses with no antecedent: I'll take whatever money they've got).


He noticed the apples and oranges, which were rotting, in the room next door. This is not very ambiguous and means that both the apples and the oranges were rotting. If you wanted to single out the oranges you could say something like: He noticed the apples and oranges, the latter of which were rotting, in the room next door. This feels awkward ...

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