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4

I would itemize it as a list, sorted by level of familiarity (descending). I am fluent in Spanish, I have a working knowledge of French, and I am currently teaching myself Arabic In your original sentence, there are three distinct clauses: I speak Spanish I have a working familiarity with French I am currently teaching myself Arabic It is awkward ...


3

"I am student" is not grammatically correct as "student" is a noun. Note that meme-like inside jokes exist around the web where the phrase is used incorrectly on purpose (KEEP-CALM-I-AM-STUDENT)


3

The presence of the comma makes a big difference. Dave told me about his new hobby, which he's enjoying very much. Here the comma marks the following relative clause as non-restrictive—that is, it doesn't define which new hobby he's talking about but adds some new information about it. If the comma were not present the clause would be ...


3

I have heard that construct (a line of asterisks meant to suggest a temporal or logical disconnect) described as a "zareba," back in my days as a typesetter, but I am unable to find a reference for that usage, even in the venerable OED -- it may have been local to SF Bay typesetters, or just used by typesetters in general.


2

As Robusto points out in comments beneath the question, there is no universally acknowledged rule governing whether to include or omit a comma after a conjunction at the beginning of a sentence. Robusto reports preferring to include such commas in academic documents, but many other writers and editors would not include them. In my experience copyediting ...


2

I'm not sure there are 'two full sentences'. Would you consider We had to build an internet system that was so convenient. as a complete sentence? However We had to build an internet system is a sentence. The relative pronoun that connects the important second clause. And it seems to me this is the pivot point. Personally, I do not see the need for any ...


2

As others have stated, there are no absolute authorities or rules on English punctuation. However, there are certain guidelines that are helpful. Rather than putting my foot in my mouth by trying to list or explain such guidelines, I point you to two useful resources. The Chicago Manual of Style ...


2

No. The word student is a noun not an adjective, so you would say "I am a student.". There is no plural for "a" or "the" in English, thus "We are students." is good English.


2

This is not something that is done very often, and I doubt style guides have anything to say on it at all. Finnegan's Wake, by James Joyce, opens with the continuation of the last sentence in the book, and it starts: riverrun past Eve and Adam's, from swerve of shore to bend of bay, brings us by a commodius vicus of recirculation back to Howth Castle ...


2

What you're doing here is anadiplosis, "repetition of a prominent and usually the last word in one phrase or clause at the beginning of the next" (MW). And yes, it's long been recognised as a specific rhetorical device which adds emphasis to the repeated word (see Wikipedia, among other sources). However, what makes it anadiplosis isn't the em dash; it's ...


2

I would punctuate it like this: Should this discussion result in a definite need for additional funding, I will submit a request for additional dollars at that time.


2

Nicolo said, "I'll let you know if anything changes." Placing the full stop before the closing quotation is the so-called US convention. Nicolo said, "I'll let you know if anything changes". Placing the full stop after the closing quotation is the so-called UK convention. These are just conventions, not hard and fast rules. Poets and novelists ...


1

I checked three widely used style guides (Chicago Manual of Style, fifteenth edition; Words Into Type, third edition; and Oxford Style Manual), and they don't cover this question at all. For the most part, style guides are concerned with the use of ellipsis points to indicate omissions from quotations or to signal a speaker's voice or thought trailing off ...


1

You've got two different example, one with contexts and one with content, but it doesn't matter. The two compound adjectives mean different things. "User-generated and mediated" contexts means that the users make the contexts but the mediation is not necessarily performed by users. "User-generated and -mediated" context means the the contexts are ...


1

The teacher is mistaken, though they are equivalent in your first two sample sentences. "I can't see you -- are you here?" is grammatical, but "I can't see you, are you here?" is a comma splice. "What the --" isn't a complete phrase, but it's acceptable in dialog. "What the," would not be. Similarly, "What the -- oh, there you are" would be acceptable in ...


1

Since you are quoting a question, you need to put the question mark within the quotation marks. It is a quoted question. Ex: "What time is it?" she asked. [From your example itself] But in cases where you are questioning a given statement, then you need to put the question mark outside the quotation marks. The entire statement is in question here. Ex: Did ...


1

I think it's an odd style decision. Typographically, a double hyphen is equivalent to an em dash, which means that the punctuation in your first example is equivalent to this: "But—" Boris tapped his pocket— "your hotel." Paired em dashes serve to break out a word or clause that can be excised from a sentence without causing the sentence to become ...


1

Personally I would have picked the first one because it makes most sense. You should see the comma as a place where you rest in a sentence, so it would be; "David told me about his new hobby, ........ which he's enjoying". The second one does not really work. "David told me about his new hobby, that he's enjoying". It would work better if the sentence was ...


1

"Ask questions" and the rest can be seen grammatically either as two separate sentences (separated by either a sentence break or a semi-colon) or as a general command and a specific case (separated by a colon). Two colons in a single sentence isn't good, so if you use a colon here, don't use one after "for example". Quotes aren't really necessary around the ...


1

I will back my statement up based on the fact that I have a bachelor's degree with a minor in English, and that I have a few grey hairs. We must keep in mind that there is no official sanctioning body that dictates how to use commas in a salutation that includes the word "Hello." In my years, I have come across many different interpretations on how to ...


1

Choosing whether or not to include spaces between the ellipses and the words is mostly a stylistic choice, and often has to do with readability, such as whether or not the dot closest to the word tends to disappear into the letter next to it. As for any meaning denoted by spaces and the lack thereof used in the same work, it is so varied in fictional works ...


1

"Oft," like "often," is an adverb and requires no hyphenation when it modifies an adjective. In the phrase, "The oft-cited first sentence of this work," the hyphen introduces no clarity because "oft," an adverb, cannot modify anything here but "cited," an adjective—and a hyphen that doesn't introduce clarity is superfluous and is certainly not needed. The ...



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