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4

There are grammatical restrictions on the use of pronouns when they occur within the same sentence as co-referential noun phrases. A pronoun can co-refer with another normal noun phrase if either: it occurs after the other noun phrase or it occurs lower down in the syntactic tree than the other noun phrase. This last point means that a pronoun in a ...


4

That's just how some idomatic expressions work. In English, it is sometimes used as a subject, as in it's raining, it's sunny, it's warm. Of course it would be possible to say rain is falling, the sun is shining, the weather is warm, and sometimes people do say that. Most commonly, though, people tend to use the shorter, familiar idioms. About rain is ...


3

Personally I would call a baby it or they until they were born or you discover its sex, after which you then use that appropriate pronoun. On a slightly related note, intersex and non-binary identifiers struggle with pronoun usage and they have found all sorts of alternative pronouns (Wikipedia) including the English they and them and the German zir. ...


3

If the question is, why would someone refer to the the Mayor as 'it', the answer may be that they didn't really. It is possible that what was heard wasn't 'isn't it', but 'innit' Innit short form of isn't it. Used at the end of a statement for emphasis: "It's wrong, innit?" "They're such a wicked band, innit." The usage is part of Urban British ...


3

As a native speaker, the first example, "The previous mayor was a woman, wasn't she?", sounds right. The second example, "The mayor is male, isn't it?" sounds very wrong, because the pronoun "it" is not used for people in English; rather he, she, or even they can be used to refer to a singular person. So a standard usage in the second example could be "isn'...


2

You're talking about postcedents. An antecedent is a word/phrase which is referred back to in a later part of the sentence like "your tea" in "Drink your tea while it's hot." If you said "While it's still hot, you should drink your tea", "your tea" becomes a postcedent. http://english.edurite.com/english-grammar/postcedents.html# In both cases, the ...


2

The adjunct is a verbless clause. The choice of case for the subject of such an adjunct is a matter of style: in your example, the nominative "he"/"she" being the formal variant, accusative "him"/"her" the informal. The clause, although verbless, nevertheless contains a predicative element (cf. "He is/him being an artist and "She is/her being a singer".)


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As the grammatical-number tag you have added implies, this is a matter of the 'number' of the word. As the dictionary definition says, trio is a singular noun, even though a trio is made up of three objects or people. So it is correct (and sounds correct to me) to use "was" with it instead of "were". In general, collective nouns such as "trio" take singular ...


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I don't think there are any hard and fast rules on whether you put yourself first or last. I would however amend the second example, which at the moment doesn't clearly indicate whether it is a map shared by Joe and yourself, or you and Joe both have separate maps. Use either "...on Joe's' map and on mine" or "...on the map that Joe and I were using" to make ...


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You need to parse this carefully. "They" in the fourth paragraph refers to microbes that live in low oxygen environments. Although they don't use mitochondria for generating energy these low oxygen microbes use mitochondria for other purposes. In that respect the newly found microbe is different. It too lives in a low oxygen environment and uses other ...



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