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In each case keep is the verb and off is the preposition. In "keep off the grass" there is a contraction - the object is "implied". It's actually an imperative: "Keep everything off the grass". verb-object-preposition-noun. In "Keep your hands off her", it's a pretty straightforwards imperative. verb-object-preposition-noun. You can tell the 'keep ...


The second phrase is more polite. The first one is more casual: chummy; friendly. Requires a level of intimacy above absolute zero between the two parties. With an even higher level of intimacy, phrases such as "At what time do you stop being a lackey of capitalism?" become permissible.


When used of people, they have different meanings; only 'turn up' is used as a MWV: John turned up. (We didn't know if he was going to come - quite possibly not.) John came up. This is probably a straight directional (... the stairs) or slightly metaphorical (... from the Midlands) usage. When used of making a discovery, only 'turn up' is used: ...


Contrast... 1: You never know what will turn up 2: You never know what will come up The specific context may force one interpretation of the other, but I'm sure that on average people would use turn up for desirable future possibilities, and come up for undesirable ones. For a slightly different meaning, contrast... 3: John turned up at the ...


Personally, I would replace "yelled at" with "reprimanded". For example, "If you do that, you might get reprimanded". If the word "reprimanded" is too ambiguous for that context, I would use "verbally reprimanded".


There are many definitions of the transitive verb "take over". But the relevant ones in this context are to take possession of, to dominate, or to take control of. These definitions make sense when you understand the first word in your example sentence to mean "It has" rather than "It is." It has pretty much taken over my Instagram. Or more simply: ...

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