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27

A general term for intentionally altered spelling is sensational spelling, in which the writer misspells words for an intended effect. Another, more specific term is cacography, which is misspelling intended for comic effect. It was often seen used to mock illiterate/uneducated people.


12

First, if you're actually teaching English to non-native speakers, you must learn and use at least those IPA symbols that represent English phonemes. Get yourself a copy of Kenyon and Knott and use it; or borrow one of your students' bilingual dictionaries. If you help them, your students can understand the pronunciations as they appear in their bilingual ...


10

It can also be a form of an eye dialect: The use of nonstandard spelling for speech to draw attention to an ironically standard pronunciation. The term was coined by George P. Krapp to refer to the literary technique of using nonstandard spelling that implies a pronunciation of the given word that is actually standard, such as wimmin for women; the ...


10

Based on the example you've given, I think the most clear answer is: Advertisement and Marketing. Words like "nite" as in "Nick at Nite" or "thru" as in "Drive Thru", "tonite" as in "Tonite Only", even "donut" as in "Dunkin' Donuts", are all marketing and advertisement inventions--mostly of the American variety. While donut predates Dunkin' Donuts by ...


9

It is called allegro speech. The deliberate misspelling, respelling, or non-standard alternative spelling of words, usually with the purpose of conveying rapid or informal speech patterns. [grammar.about.com] This is also related to the very nature of English language (and most languages) where there is no exact one-to-one correspondence between ...


8

Phonemic /l/ that occurs in words like laugh and full is indeed two different sounds in many speakers, but these are just different allophones of the same underlying phoneme. In fact, phonemic /l/ can be realized as any of [l], [ɫ], [ɤ], [w], [o], or [ʊ] — see here. For most speakers of English, the allophone in laugh is phonetic [l], whereas the one in ...


7

Simple insertion is epenthesis; swapping, metathesis.


7

The general term is metathesis. I am not aware of a specific term for the first two letters. Other examples include pasketti, asteriks, revelant, nucular, but also the venerable thirteen, aks, horse, bird.


7

The reason this problem arises is that the consonant in the middle of usual - which phoneticians call the voiced palatoalveolar fricative, and which is written in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) as [ʒ] - doesn't have a fixed representation in the English writing system. When it occurs in words borrowed from other languages, we usually keep the ...


7

So which pronunciation is standard for the [ʊ] sound? Rounded or unrounded? Certainly there is some rounding, but because roundedness is not phonemic in this position, there is also considerable variation in how much of it actually occurs in any given word and speaker. For example, you will find that it is generally somewhat more rounded in pull and ...


7

They're told apart by the same way that /f/ and /v/, or /s/ and /z/, are. You use your vocal cords for /v/, /z/, and /ʒ/, but not for /f/, /s/, /ʃ/. Aside from that, they're identical.


7

EDIT: I waited ten hours for other answers to appear, then presented my own findings. I do not pretend that mine is the only possible answer, and would like to hear what others have to say in their own answers. The English word playa is pronounced /ˈplaɪ.ə/ in English with two syllables, with the dot there representing a syllabic boundary. English ...


6

That practice is called transcription: 1.2 A form in which a speech sound or a foreign character is represented: ODO Transliteration is not necessarily a phonetic operation: Transliterate: Write or print (a letter or word) using the closest corresponding letters of a different alphabet or language: ODO Because Arabic has a ...


6

Yes, there is a connection between losing one phonemic property and gaining another. Most approaches to phonology conceptualize words as having double lives: on the one hand, they are made of a particular sound sequence which you have to pronounce correctly; on the other hand, the sounds in sequences are only recognized as discrete parts because they ...


6

Phonemics, or Phonology, is the study of the distribution of sound systems in human languages. A Phoneme is a particular set of sounds produced in a particular language and distinguishable by native speakers of that language from other (sets of) sounds in that language. That's what "distinctive" means -- the English phonemes /n/ and /ŋ/ can be told apart by ...


6

yes. it can either be /ɪnˈʃrʌɪn/ or /ɛnˈʃrʌɪn/. Usually, the more common is listed first.


6

In California and the Southwestern U.S., the /ɪ/ in think is pronounced more like the vowel /i/ in bean, so it's close to /θiŋk/ in IPA. See this post on dialect blog, which calls it pre-velar tensing. In fact, I suspect this pronunciation is also present in the speech of some Americans who are not from the West, just judging from the way some speakers on ...


6

TL;DR: Science has two syllables compared with just one in signs, but phonologic factors like fast-speech rules and characteristics of Southeast Asian languages might make them sound alike you. When you ask “how many syllables” a word has, especially one like science, you open up an extremely broad question whose complete treatment is probably beyond the ...


6

Science has 1 strong and 1 weak syllable. They together result in its rhythm. The strong (— ) syllable: long & stressed , Weak (·) syllable: short. E.g. — · Science ( SAI-ens), — · table


5

At a guess (and without a recording it can be no more than that), you are doing one of two things: If you are merely "overarticulating" the /k/, like an anxious student in a voice production class, you are probably producing a little puff of air when you release the consonant. This sounds like the "BrE" recording on this page, and in IPA it is notated ...


5

I think the term you are looking for is assimilation: Assimilation has a very precise meaning when it’s related to studies of languages. Is a common phonological process bye which the phonetics of a speech segment becomes more like another segment in a word. In other words it’s when a letter (sound) is influenced by the letter (sound) before or after ...


5

If you're speaking of the Louisville in Kentucky, when I was last in those parts it was pronounced approximately /ˈlʊəvl̩ /, with a syllabic /l/ and the first syllable just barely a diphthong. The one in Tennessee has a more definite diphthong: /ˈlʊivl̩ /.


4

In purely phonetic terms, it is most definitely not an [e]. Few dialects of English have a true [e] (some have [eː], but that’s a different sound). The ‘long a’ diphthong can be variously transcribed as [ɛɪ], [ɛi], [eɪ], or occasionally [ei], depending on how broad the phonetic transcription is, what dialect is being transcribed, and a host of other ...


4

The usual linguistic term for the complete loss of a sound is elision; in this case, the sound /t/ was elided when it came after a fricative and before a homorganic syllabic consonant [n̩] or [l̩] (which are usually analyzed phonemically as /ən/ and /əl/, and pronounced that way for some speakers). The Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language ...


4

The transcriptions are slightly different, but they're both correct. You'll have to decide which style of transcription you prefer. Phonetizer appears to be a more phonetic and less phonemic rendering; it marks long vowels, which is a little unusual for American English transcription -- it's not clear just what the vowel length signifies since it's not ...


4

I don't know, but here's an interesting quote from Abercrombie's book Fifty years in Phonetics. In America phonetic notation has had a curious history. Bloomfield used IPA notation in his early book An Introduction to the Study of Language, 1914, and in the English edition of his more famous Language, 1935. But since then, a strange hostility ...


4

Consider the letter A. Now consider these: All of these forms are very different; but they are all understood as the letter A. Everybody pronounces the language differently; but what people hear is a very small number of “meaningful” sounds—phonemes. Just as we map the various physical realizations we see onto a small fixed inventory of characters, we ...


4

I speak a little Thai so I think I know what you are referring to. It's not a matter of lung air but a matter of how you let the air out when you are speaking, and when. The phonotax, which sound structure syllables and words have, is very different for English and Thai. 1. the number of possible consonants phonemes in the beginning of a Thai syllable is ...


4

epenthesis, or more specifically, excrescence WP: In phonology, epenthesis (/əˈpɛnθəsɪs/; Ancient Greek: ἐπένθεσις) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word. … excrescence, for the addition of a consonant, … On grammar.about.com: "The history of English provides examples [of epenthesis] ...


4

[Firstly, please excuse the lazy IPA: I'm writing this on my phone, and sadly IPA input is not possible.] There are two things that conspire to make this happen, both quite normal processes in standard speech with its slurriness and tendency to be lazy wherever possible: The diphthong /aɪ̯/ for ‘I’ is reduced to a monophthong /a/, particularly in an ...



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