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30

A general term for intentionally altered spelling is sensational spelling, in which the writer misspells words for an intended effect. Another, more specific term is cacography, which is misspelling intended for comic effect. It was often seen used to mock illiterate/uneducated people.


16

Phonemics, or Phonology, is the study of the distribution of sound systems in human languages. A Phoneme is a particular set of sounds produced in a particular language and distinguishable by native speakers of that language from other (sets of) sounds in that language. That's what "distinctive" means -- the English phonemes /n/ and /ŋ/ can be told apart by ...


13

Based on the example you've given, I think the most clear answer is: Advertisement and Marketing. Words like "nite" as in "Nick at Nite" or "thru" as in "Drive Thru", "tonite" as in "Tonite Only", even "donut" as in "Dunkin' Donuts", are all marketing and advertisement inventions--mostly of the American variety. While donut predates Dunkin' Donuts by ...


13

First, if you're actually teaching English to non-native speakers, you must learn and use at least those IPA symbols that represent English phonemes. Get yourself a copy of Kenyon and Knott and use it; or borrow one of your students' bilingual dictionaries. If you help them, your students can understand the pronunciations as they appear in their bilingual ...


12

The strongest cue for distinguishing these two words is the length of the vowel (in American English at least). The word can has a lengthened vowel can't has a much shorter vowel On the telephone, where the auditory signal is compressed, exaggerating the length of the vowels ("did you say ca-an or can't?") is how most people distinguish these two words. ...


11

Short answer In most varieties of General American these words use the same phoneme, /æ/. However the /æ/ in sag and the /æ/ in slant are different. The /æ/ in slant will be nasalised. It will also be shorter than the /æ/ in sag. Full answer In General American both these words use the vowel /æ/. [Some other varieties of English use different vowels in ...


10

It can also be a form of an eye dialect: The use of nonstandard spelling for speech to draw attention to an ironically standard pronunciation. The term was coined by George P. Krapp to refer to the literary technique of using nonstandard spelling that implies a pronunciation of the given word that is actually standard, such as wimmin for women; the ...


10

Consider the letter A. Now consider these: All of these forms are very different; but they are all understood as the letter A. Everybody pronounces the language differently; but what people hear is a very small number of “meaningful” sounds—phonemes. Just as we map the various physical realizations we see onto a small fixed inventory of characters, we ...


9

It is called allegro speech. The deliberate misspelling, respelling, or non-standard alternative spelling of words, usually with the purpose of conveying rapid or informal speech patterns. [grammar.about.com] This is also related to the very nature of English language (and most languages) where there is no exact one-to-one correspondence between ...


8

I'm afraid the opposite to what Kosmonaut says applies in the case of British English. Can rhymes with can (the object), ban, tan, man. Can't rhymes with car, bar, mar.


8

The reason this problem arises is that the consonant in the middle of usual - which phoneticians call the voiced palatoalveolar fricative, and which is written in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) as [ʒ] - doesn't have a fixed representation in the English writing system. When it occurs in words borrowed from other languages, we usually keep the ...


8

Phonemic /l/ that occurs in words like laugh and full is indeed two different sounds in many speakers, but these are just different allophones of the same underlying phoneme. In fact, phonemic /l/ can be realized as any of [l], [ɫ], [ɤ], [w], [o], or [ʊ] — see here. For most speakers of English, the allophone in laugh is phonetic [l], whereas the one in ...


7

TL;DR: Science has two syllables compared with just one in signs, but phonologic factors like fast-speech rules and characteristics of Southeast Asian languages might make them sound alike you. When you ask “how many syllables” a word has, especially one like science, you open up an extremely broad question whose complete treatment is probably beyond the ...


7

The general term is metathesis. I am not aware of a specific term for the first two letters. Other examples include pasketti, asteriks, revelant, nucular, but also the venerable thirteen, aks, horse, bird.


7

Simple insertion is epenthesis; swapping, metathesis.


7

So which pronunciation is standard for the [ʊ] sound? Rounded or unrounded? Certainly there is some rounding, but because roundedness is not phonemic in this position, there is also considerable variation in how much of it actually occurs in any given word and speaker. For example, you will find that it is generally somewhat more rounded in pull and ...


7

Yes, there is a connection between losing one phonemic property and gaining another. Most approaches to phonology conceptualize words as having double lives: on the one hand, they are made of a particular sound sequence which you have to pronounce correctly; on the other hand, the sounds in sequences are only recognized as discrete parts because they ...


7

In California and the Southwestern U.S., the /ɪ/ in think is pronounced more like the vowel /i/ in bean, so it's close to /θiŋk/ in IPA. See this post on dialect blog, which calls it pre-velar tensing. In fact, I suspect this pronunciation is also present in the speech of some Americans who are not from the West, just judging from the way some speakers on ...


7

Phonemically, the consonant cluster at the start of queen is usually analysed as two successive phonemes, a stop and a glide (or semivowel), so as /kw/ not as the labialized /kʷ/. Phonetically it may in fact be [kʰʷ]in some speakers, but this is not a phonemic distinction, only an allophone. That means the phonemes of queen are /kwin/. Compare twin ...


7

They're told apart by the same way that /f/ and /v/, or /s/ and /z/, are. You use your vocal cords for /v/, /z/, and /ʒ/, but not for /f/, /s/, /ʃ/. Aside from that, they're identical.


7

EDIT: I waited ten hours for other answers to appear, then presented my own findings. I do not pretend that mine is the only possible answer, and would like to hear what others have to say in their own answers. The English word playa is pronounced /ˈplaɪ.ə/ in English with two syllables, with the dot there representing a syllabic boundary. English ...


6

That practice is called transcription: 1.2 A form in which a speech sound or a foreign character is represented: ODO Transliteration is not necessarily a phonetic operation: Transliterate: Write or print (a letter or word) using the closest corresponding letters of a different alphabet or language: ODO Because Arabic has a ...


6

In my whole life, I've almost never heard the final /t/ in night and the initial /t/ in train articulated the same way. Short answer: dialectal variation (and I think it's a poor choice for an example of gemination) The Wikipedia article you cite qualifies this example as a minimal pair "for most accents" (which I doubt, but that's Wikipedia for you). ...


6

In my dialect of American English (mid-western), the unstressed "can" is generally pronounced [ken] or [kən], whereas "can't" is always pronounced with a short "a", as [kænt]. In a stressed position, it's [kæn] vs. [kænt], but the final 't' sound is always aspirated instead of glottal-stopped, making the distinction fairly easy to recognize.


6

yes. it can either be /ɪnˈʃrʌɪn/ or /ɛnˈʃrʌɪn/. Usually, the more common is listed first.


6

Science has 1 strong and 1 weak syllable. They together result in its rhythm. The strong (— ) syllable: long & stressed , Weak (·) syllable: short. E.g. — · Science ( SAI-ens), — · table


5

I don't know, but here's an interesting quote from Abercrombie's book Fifty years in Phonetics. In America phonetic notation has had a curious history. Bloomfield used IPA notation in his early book An Introduction to the Study of Language, 1914, and in the English edition of his more famous Language, 1935. But since then, a strange hostility ...


5

At a guess (and without a recording it can be no more than that), you are doing one of two things: If you are merely "overarticulating" the /k/, like an anxious student in a voice production class, you are probably producing a little puff of air when you release the consonant. This sounds like the "BrE" recording on this page, and in IPA it is notated ...


5

Mitch is right. But onomatopoiea per se is a very insignificant phenomenon, since it can only refer to words about sounds, and how often do we talk about sounds? Onomatopoeia is, however, part of a larger, more general, and sporadically studied field of linguistic research called (variously) sound symbolism, phonosemantics, ideophones, assonance/rime ...


5

In many speakers in the Midwest and West (particularly the Upper Midwest and the Pacific Northwest), the vowel /æ/ in sag, slag, bag, tag, and so on, is diphthongized1. It can be the same as the /eɪ/ in vague, or it can be pronounced similarly to the way Australians pronounce mate /mæɪt/. See this dialect blog entry. 1It is also diphthongized in sang, ...



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