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12

First, if you're actually teaching English to non-native speakers, you must learn and use at least those IPA symbols that represent English phonemes. Get yourself a copy of Kenyon and Knott and use it; or borrow one of your students' bilingual dictionaries. If you help them, your students can understand the pronunciations as they appear in their bilingual ...


7

So which pronunciation is standard for the [ʊ] sound? Rounded or unrounded? Certainly there is some rounding, but because roundedness is not phonemic in this position, there is also considerable variation in how much of it actually occurs in any given word and speaker. For example, you will find that it is generally somewhat more rounded in pull and ...


7

The general term is metathesis. I am not aware of a specific term for the first two letters. Other examples include pasketti, asteriks, revelant, nucular, but also the venerable thirteen, aks, horse, bird.


6

In California and the Southwestern U.S., the /ɪ/ in think is pronounced more like the vowel /i/ in bean, so it's close to /θiŋk/ in IPA. See this post on dialect blog, which calls it pre-velar tensing. In fact, I suspect this pronunciation is also present in the speech of some Americans who are not from the West, just judging from the way some speakers on ...


6

The reason this problem arises is that the consonant in the middle of usual - which phoneticians call the voiced palatoalveolar fricative, and which is written in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) as [ʒ] - doesn't have a fixed representation in the English writing system. When it occurs in words borrowed from other languages, we usually keep the ...


6

Phonemics, or Phonology, is the study of the distribution of sound systems in human languages. A Phoneme is a particular set of sounds produced in a particular language and distinguishable by native speakers of that language from other (sets of) sounds in that language. That's what "distinctive" means -- the English phonemes /n/ and /ŋ/ can be told apart by ...


6

Yes, there is a connection between losing one phonemic property and gaining another. Most approaches to phonology conceptualize words as having double lives: on the one hand, they are made of a particular sound sequence which you have to pronounce correctly; on the other hand, the sounds in sequences are only recognized as discrete parts because they ...


5

At a guess (and without a recording it can be no more than that), you are doing one of two things: If you are merely "overarticulating" the /k/, like an anxious student in a voice production class, you are probably producing a little puff of air when you release the consonant. This sounds like the "BrE" recording on this page, and in IPA it is notated ...


4

Mitch is right. But onomatopoiea per se is a very insignificant phenomenon, since it can only refer to words about sounds, and how often do we talk about sounds? Onomatopoeia is, however, part of a larger, more general, and sporadically studied field of linguistic research called (variously) sound symbolism, phonosemantics, ideophones, assonance/rime ...


4

The transcriptions are slightly different, but they're both correct. You'll have to decide which style of transcription you prefer. Phonetizer appears to be a more phonetic and less phonemic rendering; it marks long vowels, which is a little unusual for American English transcription -- it's not clear just what the vowel length signifies since it's not ...


4

I speak a little Thai so I think I know what you are referring to. It's not a matter of lung air but a matter of how you let the air out when you are speaking, and when. The phonotax, which sound structure syllables and words have, is very different for English and Thai. 1. the number of possible consonants phonemes in the beginning of a Thai syllable is ...


4

I don't know, but here's an interesting quote from Abercrombie's book Fifty years in Phonetics. In America phonetic notation has had a curious history. Bloomfield used IPA notation in his early book An Introduction to the Study of Language, 1914, and in the English edition of his more famous Language, 1935. But since then, a strange hostility ...


3

As I've had occasion to say before, English spelling does not represent English pronunciation. Consequently the letter C can represent - the voiceless alveolar sibilant /s/, as in pace /pes/ - the voiceless velar stop /k/, as in caucus /'kɔkəs/ - (as part of CH) the voiceless palatal affricative /tʃ/, as in church /tʃərtʃ/ as well as other sounds, ...


3

No, Chloë and Zoë are still stressed on the penult even when written as Chloé and Zoé. Once upon a time people would write learnéd instead of learnèd, but it doesn’t change the stress in English — as opposed to in inglés, where it does.


3

Consider the letter A. Now consider these: All of these forms are very different; but they are all understood as the letter A. Everybody pronounces the language differently; but what people hear is a very small number of “meaningful” sounds—phonemes. Just as we map the various physical realizations we see onto a small fixed inventory of characters, we ...


3

There's no definitive spelling, but as per ushe is a common one with the benefit of being fairly unambiguous. Alternatives include as per use, but that could be confused with "for each use", and as per uje, but that looks a bit odd. The OED doesn't include either, but does note as per is also a shortened form.


3

Apparently this is considered the normal, default pronunciation in General American. Look at, and more importantly, listen to red at the Sound Comparisons site. Notice that the General American pronunciation is given as [ɻɛd], not [ɹɛd]. On the other hand, apart from the up-talking teen-aged boy’s pronunciation provided in the “General American” ...


3

Phonetics deals with the actual sounds and their articulation, like the difference between the articulation of 't' and 'd' (where the 't' is voiceless and the 'd' is voiced). Phonology deals with the rules of how those sounds, the phonetics, are put together. For instance, how a 't' in medial position is pronounced as a flap and not a hard 't' sound (i.e. ...


3

In standard US English they are pronounced the same. I've heard Southerners pronounce "hear" as two syllables with the "r" silent, as in, "Y'all come back now, yuh he-ah." I'm surprised by Sean's statement of Kentuckians pronouncing "here" as two syllables but "hear" as one, because, as I say, the only dialect I've ever heard had it the other way around. ...


3

How you doin'? [Friends] Ha! I would distinguish the usage of "doin" from "doin's". The context in which "doin's" is the word to use is likely to be much different, and much less frequent, than "doin'", which will come up in casual conversation with some frequency, as with - "Watcha doin'?" The usage of "doin's" is likely to be entirely unrelated. ...


2

I suggest that the differences are small and pronunciations vary widely. For example, although your reference lists /ˌɪndəˈrekt/ as the preferred British pronunciation, and doesn't list it at all for American English, I overwhelmingly hear /ˌɪndəˈrekt/ in the U.S. In short, I don't think this is anything to be troubled about. People will know what you mean, ...


2

Nasal vowels may be a feature of US speech, but I’m not sure they occur in non-regional British speech. I hear no difference between the vowel in bit and the vowel in think and for the latter, indeed, the OED has /θɪŋk/, and not /θɪ̰ŋk/, for the US pronunciation. Nasal vowels are a noticeable feature of French, where they typically occur without a following ...


2

As @JohnLawler points out, it would take an extensive sociolinguistic study to arrive at something definitive. Based on various bits of research provided in the comments, this accent appears often in speakers from California who perform a "velar pinch." I'm marking this answered because I think until a deeper study is done, this is what we have: ...


2

This shows the typical pronunciation of any to be /ˈɛni/. The /ɛ/ is the same sound as at the beginning of end, not the sound at the beginning of anvil (/æ/). Spelling and pronunciation are not strictly related. If you want to pronounce any as /ˈæni/ you're welcome to, it doesn't sound so different that you'll be misunderstood, it's just not the typical ...


2

Preface: I knew I'd be able to recycle my lengthy answer one day. This is copied, almost verbatim, from a previous answer I gave a few days ago. I can only say that in my opinion people would just as likely continue misspelling despite the noble aims of the spelling reforms below. The short answer to Spatz's question is an emphatic, yes! Cut Spelling In ...


2

Standard Written English doesn't use diacritics,¹ so there is no consensus for what they mean when you do use them. That is, a native speaker may not think that "Chloë" or "Chloé" is meant to be pronounced differently than "Chloe", and even if they do, no two speakers will necessarily agree on what the pronunciation is. Culturally, people are entitled to ...


2

(first draft, part 1, to be edited) You have asked so many questions, and many of them don’t have simple, irrefutable answers. So, I’ll try to address some of your questions below - immensely simplifying things and ignoring exceptions and minor cases. At first, some caveats (the following is mostly based on Hogg 2008). Vowel length was rarely marked in ...


2

There are two distinct realizations of the /r/ (as in red) consonant phoneme in American English. Though the articulations are completely different, they sound quite similar. There's an coronal realization [ɻ], often described as somewhat retroflexed, which is the one you read about. I think that this articulation is less retroflexed than the Mandarin /ɻ/, ...


2

[Firstly, please excuse the lazy IPA: I'm writing this on my phone, and sadly IPA input is not possible.] There are two things that conspire to make this happen, both quite normal processes in standard speech with its slurriness and tendency to be lazy wherever possible: The diphthong /aɪ̯/ for ‘I’ is reduced to a monophthong /a/, particularly in an ...


2

For a Bible-sized book on American English phonetics, check out: Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change For the most popular book on the subject (ranked by the US amazon.com book website), check out: A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English



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