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41

In short: In Proto-Germanic, the prefix was *ga-; In Old English, it was ġe- (pronounced /je/, /jə/); In Middle English, it was y-, i-, or ȝe- (pronounced /ɪ/); In Modern English, it survives in a handful of words as i-, a-, or y- (see below). The Wiktionary page for y- has these usage notes: This prefix represents a common Germanic perfective ...


28

"Inputted" may be acceptable per Oxford, but it sets my teeth on edge; my ear wants "input" to follow the same rules as "put". I suspect I'm not the only one, which is probably why you're being forced to change it. EDIT: This question/answer has been getting a bit of attention recently, so I'd like to clarify my comment below. There is a verb, putt, ...


23

According to the OED, the verb hang came into English from Old Norse hengja with weak inflection (so, taking regular past forms). Eventually, by analogy with other ablaut forms like sing/sang/sung, the verb hang changed into a few different forms (depending on the region of England), e.g. hing/hang, hang/hong, etc. Ultimately, the hing/hang form added hung ...


22

Apart from the obvious close-but-no-cigar candidates abandoned and forsaken, how about marooned? [put] ashore on a desolate island or coast and [left] to one's fate [placed or left] in isolation or without hope of ready escape


21

As a new coinage it would take regular verb inflections: text, texts, texted, etc. And as I hear it used, the "to" is unnecessary. I texted her but she didn't text me back. It feels like the verb form is going to parallel "call" in that respect: You wouldn't say "I called to her" if you meant you called on the phone.


21

I would use quit, as it is more readily understood by people. Dictionary.com indicates that both are plausible. Merriam Webster says the same. Looking through Google books, quitted seems to be used synonymously with left, e.g., Plato quitted Athens, where he was adored as a god ... I quitted Manchester, I quitted Mrs. ++++++++, I quitted ++++++++ hall ...


18

I've always understood them to have somewhat different meaning. [...] employees are subject to testing [...] Means that at any time they could be required to be tested. On the other hand, [...] employees are subjected to testing [...] would mean the employees are actually put through the testing. Quick summary: Subject to = can happen Subjected ...


15

You can use forms of get instead of forms of be as an alternative way to formulate the passive voice. Passive voice clauses constructed with get are less formal than those formed with be, but otherwise have the same meaning. However, you can’t use get for stative uses of the passive voice, where the passive indicates the result of an action. You can only ...


15

Generally, subject to (subject in this case is an adjective) is most commonly used in the following ways: having a tendency for something This road is subject to flooding. conditional upon Your business plan is subject to review. The promotion is subject to our terms and conditions. Subjected to is used to mean "to be made to undergo an ...


15

Override is formed from the irregular verb ride. The Principal Parts of ride are ride, rode, ridden. That means the PPs of override are override, overrode, overridden. With me so far? OK, the first PP in each case is the Infinitive form (to ride, to override). The second PP is the Past form (They rode it, They overrode it) The third PP is the Perfect ...


14

You seem to be asking two different questions. Of Copular Complements The first is how an adjective like half-sunken can apply to a verb in your sentence. The answer is that it doesn’t, because lie is here functioning more like a copula. It just serves to link the subject with a predicate description of that subject. Some writers prefer the term ...


13

Mis- is a productive prefix, so I see no reason why it should not be allowed to form new verbs, unless used instead of a better word if such exists. The OED agrees: As now apprehended, the prefix normally implies not censure of the act itself, but only of its manner. With this restriction, nonce-words may be formed very freely. In the 17th c. ...


13

Hanged has the specific meaning of execution by hanging, with a rope, "until dead." From NOAD: 2 ( past hanged ) [ trans. ] kill (someone) by tying a rope attached from above around the neck and removing the support from beneath (used as a form of capital punishment) : he was hanged for murder | she hanged herself in her cell For all other purposes, ...


13

Yes, broadcast is a verb, and Dictionary.com says either broadcast or broadcasted is acceptable as the simple past and past participle. However, this Ngram shows that broadcast is by far the preferred version. A study on this very issue can be found here.


12

Without further context, I would take it to mean that that someone or something was rejected, thrown out or discarded. It's a slang expression, encountered primarily in restaurant context. When you eighty-six someone, you refuse to serve them. Edit: Wiktionary lists a few more meanings, along with this bit about etymology: Origin uncertain. The [Oxford ...


12

This is a simple question, which actually requires a quite complex answer (which I've made as simple as I can). This is because there are several phenomena at work here. English is of West Germanic ascendency as you well know and beyond this descends from Proto-Indo-European. Old Germanic has 2 classes of verbs strong verbs and weak verbs, which are ...


12

Like German, Old English did use ge- as a prefix to mark past participles. As it moved into Middle English, this evolved into y- (also i- or ȝe-), and as with many forms of inflection became non-productive and mostly disappeared by the time modern English rolled around. Wikitionary lists yclept as a holdover, though that in itself isn't terribly common. ...


12

New verbs normally occur as regular verbs, so you'd expect past tense and past participle texted. However, for reasons of phonology, some speakers may produce the past tense and past participle as text. Only time will tell which form wins. Perhaps they'll remain alternatives. Although the current meaning of text is new, it first occurred as a verb around ...


12

Well, to start with, flaw is not really a verb; it's a noun, and nouns don't have past participles. Like practically any noun, however, it can be "Verbed" (as Calvin calls it; linguists call it Zero-Derivation, or Conversion), resulting in a causative verb to flaw, meaning 'cause to have a flaw'. It's not very common, though -- I mean, how likely do these ...


12

I believe this is called a substantive participle, most probably resulting from an omission of the qualified, thus the usual addition of the. For instance you could add “one(s)” to every one of your sentences: We fear the damned ones. He honored our fallen ones. This is a given one. (this one doesn't sound that good) You are the chosen one. The ...


11

From Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary: spell (FORM WORDS) /spel/ verb [I or T] spelled or UK AND AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH ALSO spelt, spelled or UK AND AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH ALSO spelt This means that you should say "spelled" in US English and you can use both "spelt" and "spelled" in UK/Australian English.


11

I think served is the only word that really works here. The ambiguity of handled leaves one open for the Beavises and Buttheads of the world to snicker and joke, while expedited has an entirely different meaning, one that doesn't take human beings as direct objects. Processes, requests, directives — all these can be expedited, but not people. I see ...


11

So, the difference you note started in Old English, which had the concept of strong and weak verbs. Strong verbs marked their past and past participles by varying the vowel sound in the base of the word (e.g. swim/swam/swum in Modern English). Weak verbs used a suffix (-d or -t if I recall correctly, feel->felt is a modern example). Through Middle ...


11

I can only tell you that Old English had the ge- form. For example, the inscription on the Ælfred the Great Jewel says "ÆLFRED MEC HEHT GEWYRCAN". That translates to "Alfred had me made [crafted]." And gewyrcan would have been pronounced "yewirkahn", roughly speaking. That said, John McWhorter cites the loss of these prefixes (along with be- and for-) as ...


11

The verb was borrowed into late Middle English as transferren, either from Old French transfer(r)er or directly from Latin transferre. It was stressed on the second syllable, as it is for many speakers today. Verbs ending in stressed [ɜ:] (non-rhotic varieties) or [ɝ] (rhotic varieties) typically double the final r in forming the past tense and the ...


11

This article (emphasis mine) would be hard to improve on: As past participles of get, got and gotten both date back to Middle English. The form gotten is not used in British English but is very common in North American English, though even there it is often regarded as non-standard. In North American English, got and gotten are not identical ...


10

Both spellings are used depending on the variety of English. According to Wiktionary: The spelling focused is much more common in the US; however, the spelling focussed is sometimes used in the UK and Canada, and is especially common in Australia and New Zealand. According to the website of a UK-based company Future Perfect, the general rule is as ...


10

It seems that "misconfigure" is an acceptable word by Wiktionary standards. I believe that if your formal communication involves writing to or talking with somebody who has tried to "configure" something, the message will be clear, and thus, the usage acceptable. If you are in a context where there is danger of miscommunication or misunderstanding, then you ...


10

Neglected immediately comes to mind (particularly in the context of elderly people in hospitals), my Thesaurus is also suggesting condemned which would fit better in the context of a prisoner on death row although a building can also be declared unfit and condemned. Forsaken might also work depending on context (it has many Biblical connotations).


10

"Rung up", "Checked out", or "Processed" could all work. "Rung up" is the most colloquial but also the most cashier-specific, and feels to me like the best fit; "checked out" has an unfortunate secondary meaning; and "processed" sounds quite impersonal, which may also be appropriate for some cashiers....



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