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41

In short: In Proto-Germanic, the prefix was *ga-; In Old English, it was ġe- (pronounced /je/, /jə/); In Middle English, it was y-, i-, or ȝe- (pronounced /ɪ/); In Modern English, it survives in a handful of words as i-, a-, or y- (see below). The Wiktionary page for y- has these usage notes: This prefix represents a common Germanic perfective ...


37

From the New Oxford American Dictionary: For complex historical reasons, prove developed two past participles: proved and proven. Both are correct and can be used more or less interchangeably: this hasn't been proved yet; this hasn't been proven yet. Proven is the more common form when used as an adjective before the noun it modifies: a proven talent (...


37

"Inputted" may be acceptable per Oxford, but it sets my teeth on edge; my ear wants "input" to follow the same rules as "put". I suspect I'm not the only one, which is probably why you're being forced to change it. EDIT: This question/answer has been getting a bit of attention recently, so I'd like to clarify my comment below. There is a verb, putt, ...


28

Override is formed from the irregular verb ride. The Principal Parts of ride are ride, rode, ridden. That means the PPs of override are override, overrode, overridden. With me so far? OK, the first PP in each case is the Infinitive form (to ride, to override). The second PP is the Past form (They rode it, They overrode it) The third PP is the Perfect ...


24

According to the OED, the verb hang came into English from Old Norse hengja with weak inflection (so, taking regular past forms). Eventually, by analogy with other ablaut forms like sing/sang/sung, the verb hang changed into a few different forms (depending on the region of England), e.g. hing/hang, hang/hong, etc. Ultimately, the hing/hang form added hung ...


24

As a new coinage it would take regular verb inflections: text, texts, texted, etc. And as I hear it used, the "to" is unnecessary. I texted her but she didn't text me back. It feels like the verb form is going to parallel "call" in that respect: You wouldn't say "I called to her" if you meant you called on the phone.


24

I've always understood them to have somewhat different meaning. [...] employees are subject to testing [...] Means that at any time they could be required to be tested. On the other hand, [...] employees are subjected to testing [...] would mean the employees are actually put through the testing. Quick summary: Subject to = might happen ...


23

I would use quit, as it is more readily understood by people. Dictionary.com indicates that both are plausible. Merriam Webster says the same. Looking through Google books, quitted seems to be used synonymously with left, e.g., Plato quitted Athens, where he was adored as a god ... I quitted Manchester, I quitted Mrs. ++++++++, I quitted ++++++++ hall ...


22

Apart from the obvious close-but-no-cigar candidates abandoned and forsaken, how about marooned? [put] ashore on a desolate island or coast and [left] to one's fate [placed or left] in isolation or without hope of ready escape


20

From the "Prove" entry in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition: Usage Note: Prove has two past participles: proved and proven. Proved is the older form. Proven is a variant. The Middle English spellings of prove included preven, a form that died out in England but survived in Scotland, and the past ...


20

The biggest difference between the two forms—and one so obvious that neither of the earlier two answers points it out—is that proved is used in the simple past tense, whereas proven is not: Euclid proved [not proven] the proposition with remarkable economy and rigor. Another big difference involves the historical status of the two words: For much of ...


19

Generally, subject to (subject in this case is an adjective) is most commonly used in the following ways: having a tendency for something This road is subject to flooding. conditional upon Your business plan is subject to review. The promotion is subject to our terms and conditions. Subjected to is used to mean "to be made to undergo an ...


17

Mis- is a productive prefix, so I see no reason why it should not be allowed to form new verbs, unless used instead of a better word if such exists. The OED agrees: As now apprehended, the prefix normally implies not censure of the act itself, but only of its manner. With this restriction, nonce-words may be formed very freely. In the 17th c. ...


17

Yes, broadcast is a verb, and Dictionary.com says either broadcast or broadcasted is acceptable as the simple past and past participle. However, this Ngram shows that broadcast is by far the preferred version. A study on this very issue can be found here.


16

You can use forms of get instead of forms of be as an alternative way to formulate the passive voice. Passive voice clauses constructed with get are less formal than those formed with be, but otherwise have the same meaning. However, you can’t use get for stative uses of the passive voice, where the passive indicates the result of an action. You can only ...


16

You seem to be asking two different questions. Of Copular Complements The first is how an adjective like half-sunken can apply to a verb in your sentence. The answer is that it doesn’t, because lie is here functioning more like a copula. It just serves to link the subject with a predicate description of that subject. Some writers prefer the term “semi-...


15

This is a simple question, which actually requires a quite complex answer (which I've made as simple as I can). This is because there are several phenomena at work here. English is of West Germanic ascendency as you well know and beyond this descends from Proto-Indo-European. Old Germanic has 2 classes of verbs strong verbs and weak verbs, which are ...


15

New verbs normally occur as regular verbs, so you'd expect past tense and past participle texted. However, for reasons of phonology, some speakers may produce the past tense and past participle as text. Only time will tell which form wins. Perhaps they'll remain alternatives. Although the current meaning of text is new, it first occurred as a verb around ...


15

The verb was borrowed into late Middle English as transferren, either from Old French transfer(r)er or directly from Latin transferre. It was stressed on the second syllable, as it is for many speakers today. Verbs ending in stressed [ɜ:] (non-rhotic varieties) or [ɝ] (rhotic varieties) typically double the final r in forming the past tense and the ...


15

Confusing perverse and perverted seems to be a fairly common error in English. Of the sites that explain the difference, Ginger seems to have the most concise definitions: Perverse: Marked by a disposition to oppose and contradict Perverted: (of sexual behavior) showing or appealing to bizarre or deviant tastes As this site explains, neither word ...


15

This article (emphasis mine) would be hard to improve on: As past participles of get, got and gotten both date back to Middle English. The form gotten is not used in British English but is very common in North American English, though even there it is often regarded as non-standard. In North American English, got and gotten are not identical ...


14

From Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary: spell (FORM WORDS) /spel/ verb [I or T] spelled or UK AND AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH ALSO spelt, spelled or UK AND AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH ALSO spelt This means that you should say "spelled" in US English and you can use both "spelt" and "spelled" in UK/Australian English.


14

The feeling connected with a lack of satisfaction can have two different components: A sense of incompleteness, which leaves one feeling unsatisfied A sense of wrongness, which leaves one feeling dissatisfied Naturally, both senses may overlap in certain situations. Take the following example: John's father was unsatisfied by the principal's ...


14

Your teacher made a mistake. "She had to took over" is incorrect grammar.


13

Hanged has the specific meaning of execution by hanging, with a rope, "until dead." From NOAD: 2 ( past hanged ) [ trans. ] kill (someone) by tying a rope attached from above around the neck and removing the support from beneath (used as a form of capital punishment) : he was hanged for murder | she hanged herself in her cell For all other purposes, ...


12

It seems that "misconfigure" is an acceptable word by Wiktionary standards. I believe that if your formal communication involves writing to or talking with somebody who has tried to "configure" something, the message will be clear, and thus, the usage acceptable. If you are in a context where there is danger of miscommunication or misunderstanding, then you ...


12

Without further context, I would take it to mean that that someone or something was rejected, thrown out or discarded. It's a slang expression, encountered primarily in restaurant context. When you eighty-six someone, you refuse to serve them. Edit: Wiktionary lists a few more meanings, along with this bit about etymology: Origin uncertain. The [Oxford ...


12

So, the difference you note started in Old English, which had the concept of strong and weak verbs. Strong verbs marked their past and past participles by varying the vowel sound in the base of the word (e.g. swim/swam/swum in Modern English). Weak verbs used a suffix (-d or -t if I recall correctly, feel->felt is a modern example). Through Middle English,...


12

Like German, Old English did use ge- as a prefix to mark past participles. As it moved into Middle English, this evolved into y- (also i- or ȝe-), and as with many forms of inflection became non-productive and mostly disappeared by the time modern English rolled around. Wikitionary lists yclept as a holdover, though that in itself isn't terribly common. ...


12

Well, to start with, flaw is not really a verb; it's a noun, and nouns don't have past participles. Like practically any noun, however, it can be "Verbed" (as Calvin calls it; linguists call it Zero-Derivation, or Conversion), resulting in a causative verb to flaw, meaning 'cause to have a flaw'. It's not very common, though -- I mean, how likely do these ...



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