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This is an example of Whiz deletion. The sentence is short for: There was something which had been placed on the table... The relative pronoun which and the past perfect form of BE (had been) have been omitted. This is a type of reduced relative clause. For more info on Whiz deletion see this post of John Lawler's on Whiz deletion, and also visit ...


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Let us standardize some terms here. For the sake of comprehensibility the following modern terms are preferred over the old ones: New term: Progressing Old terms: Progressive, Continuous New term: Completed Old terms: Perfect, Perfected Therefore I to need rephrase your question to use the more comprehensive terminology: Is it valid to put ...


2

Of course they're possible. As to whether you'd want to use them, that's another question entirely. Each new auxiliary verb you use further narrows the temporal interpretation of the verb. After a certain point, it just doesn't matter 99% of the time. In other cases, it just sounds weird. For the perfect continuous, that's likely because of the double ...


5

The main verb is copular was with dummy subject there. It is impossible to cast that into the passive voice. something is the complement which has the participle placed that the CGEL calls a bare passive clause. The sentence has one independent clause and that one is not passive. However, it does have a second clause (placed on the table) which is.


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In the examples you are providing, the word "by" refers to the person or object that is performing the action (replacing). Since objects are usually inanimate or incapable of performing actions by themselves, the word "by" would be less likely to be used. The word "with" is used to indicate which objects are the result of the action (replacements). A good ...


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I'm not sure that All the old school busses have been replaced by new ones is correct. In the passive voice "by" shows the person or thing that does the action while "with" shows the thing used to perform the action.


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I think this construction is, in fact, using a past participle. Further, because it uses a past participle it is definitely passive voice (which I believe is a different conclusion than you were expecting!) Here is a well written example from UNC at Chapel Hill: Once you know what to look for, passive constructions are easy to spot. Look for a form ...


1

In this particular case, there's no practical difference. Either the subject (the Java setup tool) and object (the Java runtime) of the verb install could be called "a new version of Java", so either is fine. Here's another example where it makes more difference: The man is ready to climb. The man is ready to be climbed. In the first sentence, the man ...



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