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There is no such thing as a passive copula. Since the subject and its complement (what you called the object) are both definite, the two sets are identical (not nested, like 'a cat is a mammal'); therefore it makes no difference which comes first, except for nuance.


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The cited sentence has no object! Its parts are: subject "The first man to land on the moon" verb "was" and PREDICATE NOMINATIVE "Neil Armstrong."


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The logic subject is Neil Armstrong: Neil Armstrong was the first person to land on the moon. By postponing this subject at the end of the sentence you give Neil Armstrong a very strong emphasis and the sentence evokes interest. In such sentences with the subject in end position the place of subject and subject complement are switched.


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The forms of the gerund and participle The gerund has four forms — two for the active voice and two for the passive. The forms for the participles are the same. ----------------Active--------------------Passive Present ----loving-------------------being loved Perfect------having loved---------having been loved From en.wikipedia, gerund Link "about not ...


3

(A) is correct. (B) is wrong because it's present tense and the rest of the sentence is set in the past, so there's a tense mismatch. (C) and (D) aren't really wrong, but without context they don't sound as good as (A) because there's no real need to use a perfect construction. If this was at the end of several sentences talking about the effects of ...


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This is passive voice because the expression in English uses the passive voice: to be invited to a party. to be swindled by a coworker. to be driven to work Without the infinitive, one says: Being invited to parties is fun. Being swindled by coworker is terrible. Being driven to work is not fun. Now, you can mix and match all those with other verbs of ...


4

Authors A and B proposed it. Being that proposed is in the past tense, you would use the past perfect "were obtained" rather than the present perfect "are obtained." Now, that said, since you are saying "by them," thus attributing the action to someone and negating any need for the passive voice, it becomes advisable to instead say, "They also obtained ...


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A 'reduced' indirect object (with 'to' or 'for' omitted) should only be used when there is also a direct object; otherwise the indirect object can be mistaken for a direct object. Your 1st passive example only works because we are smart and know that people aren't given to books. PS: your 'by Jeff' is adverbial and should be marked by a comma; otherwise ...


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Compare: Lake Erie borders Ohio on the north. Ohio is bordered by Lake Erie on the north. Clearly, the second is the passive of the first. Clearly, there is no action involved, and no actor or recipient. Since "bordering" is not ordinarily a process, there is no corresponding progressive aspect: *Lake Erie is bordering Ohio on the north. ...


1

The problem is caused by the fact that "subject" and "object" are not equivalent to "doer of the action" vs. "receiver of the action". Subject and object are syntactic configurations and are independent of the semantics of the phrase in the position. So of course stative verbs can have passives independent of whether they have "doers" or "actions". The ...


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The first is sometimes called an unaccusative verb. While similar to the passive participle in the second example, they are semantically distinct. The passive construction overtly implies an agent which caused the event; this agent could be animate or inanimate, such as in "The window was broken by the storm." In contrast, the unaccusative form does not ...



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