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44

"100%" is equivalent to "all". There is no rounding with "all"; either you get all of something or you don't. If a product advertised itself as "kills all bacteria" and then you found that there were 3 bacteria that it didn't kill, it doesn't matter whether that's 3 out of 10 or 3 out of 28 million; it's not all of them. Even in ordinary conversation, if ...


25

Rounding percentages is not merely a mathematical operation. Rounding highly depend on the real-life notion represented by the percentage. In your example, the complementary percentage represents the percentage of bacteria that survives after applying the soap. Lets consider the following examples without any rounding: If soap A kills 40% of bacteria, and ...


11

The OED gives it as an archaic form of "mandil," "mantel" and "mantle." Mandil is obsolete; the other two are in current use. http://findwords.info/term/mandle "Mandel" is German for "an almond nut", which might explain the "mandles in the trees" and also "a tonsil" which seems less plausible for your animal reference. Maybe "mandibles" is the modern word ...


6

Pastoral is also a literary tradition of sentimentally idealizing a rustic, rural existence. (Its origins stretch all the way back to classical antiquity, the Idylls of Theocritus and the Eclogues of Virgil, but bits of it are found in As You Like It, Don Quixote, Milton’s “Lycidas,” and even—mockingly—in the Savoy Operas of ...


4

A word can be considered a real word even if it's not in an established dictionary. Many words that have yet to appear in dictionaries are widely understood, and could be added over time - if their usage continues. Others fall away over time, but during their peak, they would have been just as real as standard dictionary words. Merriam-Webster's Help ...


4

The U.S. Army Field Manual FM 7-21.13 Section 4.18 states: 4-18. A soldier addressing a higher ranking officer uses the word sir or ma’am in the same manner as a polite civilian speaking with a person to whom he wishes to show respect. In the military service, the matter of who says sir or ma’am to whom is clearly defined; in civilian life it is ...


4

Long in the constructions take long, last long, be long -- all referring to extensive duration of an activity or event -- is a Negative Polarity Item (NPI). That means Take long, last long, and be long are idiomatic; i.e, they don't follow ordinary rules. Synonymous phrases that do follow the normal rules are take/last/be a long time, which are not NPIs. ...


4

Following the link and looking at the text preceding the first sentence, it soon becomes clear that the article was written by a non-native speaker of English. I would say that it's an error and perhaps reflects some idiom in the writer's own language. I couldn't access the original text for the second quote for some reason. I would say that it may be a ...


4

This is probably a legal, not a linguistic, reason. Should even one person get a bacterial infection after using the product in question, the manufacturer might be less likely to be accountable for the resulting illness. When other claims are made (100% natural, for example) in which counter-arguments are less feasible (there may not be any hard and fast ...


4

The answers here are correct, but I wanted to give some statistical background on the terms. When we think about measuring error, errors are often phrased in terms of Type I and Type II errors Type I errors are the "false alarm" errors or the "boy who cried wolf" errors. They occur when something is not present, but triggers detection anyway (often due ...


4

(I would post in a comment but rep is too small). This looks like an "auto-correct" from In a while (someone typed "Im" a while and it switched it to I am a while). Im is a frequent typo for I'm (versus in)


3

I would suggest honorarium: a payment in recognition of acts or professional services for which custom or propriety forbids a price to be set. (from dictionary.com) It is paid as as a favour, making it distinct from a wage or fee for service of a more commercial arrangement.


3

StoneyB is right about the origin of the phrase "on the curve." It comes from assigning letter grades ABCDF based on the (assumed) normal distribution of students' numerical scores instead of on a linear scale of A=90-100, B=80-90, C=70-80, etc. It has come to mean adjusting the grading to boost lower scores that would have been failing under a linear ...


3

The girls don't have much information to go on. (That doesn't make it any less worrying) The rumours they have heard are turning into sad, disturbing horrors. It is keeping them all awake in the dark restless night. [ I wish I could pack as much into one sentence as Hardy does.]


3

I think it means that the person read somewhere about the room, like when someone says 'Do you know MJ' and someone else says 'I've heard of him'. I hope I helped. :)


3

In reference to your first block quote, about "soup mandles", here is a pertinent article from Wikipedia: Shkedei marak (Hebrew: שקדי מרק‎, literally soup almonds), known as mandlach in Yiddish, or as "soup mandels" in the United States, is an Israeli food product consisting of crisp mini croutons used as a soup accompaniment. Shkedei marak are small ...


2

You say, 'surprisingly all "official" dictionaries, etc, poorly distinguish or simply do not distinguish, between the two cases, neither do they mention that (say) it specifically means 'both cases', nor only one case.' Maybe you have looked in the wrong official dictionaries. Acronym is clearly defined here: Definition of acronym in English: noun ...


2

Note that not rounding to 100% is not a hard rule: in France, a drink that is 99.9% fruit juice can legally boast “100% de fruits”; if you actually want 100% fruit juice, you have to look for the mention “pur jus” (pure juice). There are also many contexts where it is completely acceptable to round to 0% or 100%: if something increased by 99.9%, you could ...


2

I agree with you that the phrase seems redundant but technically, it is grammatically correct. A large group of crowds A large group of [plural-noun] A large group of marbles A large group of buildings A large group of trees A large group of sheep As you can see, any plural noun is acceptable instead of crowds. Since crowds is ...


2

From an article on “What is the Difference Between Caviar and Roe?” at www.culinarylore.com: They refer to the same thing: fish eggs. However, the term roe refers to the fish eggs (or male fish sperm) themselves while caviar is roe that has been salted or "cured" and then placed in tins for storage and aging. In the United States and Canada, any product ...


2

This is worth a bit more than a GENREF response. The adverb long is easily found {Collins} to have the sense long (23) – for or during an extensive period of time: long into the next year here. However, although we might well say The party lasted long into the night. We wouldn't use the adverb without a 'complement' in a positive ...


2

The etymological meaning of ‘but’ is ‘outside’; whence ‘except’. The instances you cite are elliptic for ‘not but’, or ‘naught but’, that is, ‘only’. O.E.D.: a. By the omission of the negative accompanying the preceding verb (see C. 4a), but passes into the adverbial sense of: Nought but, no more than, only, merely. (Thus the earlier ‘he nis but a ...


2

Kinesthesia (the sense of body movement) and proprioception (the sense of body position) are senses that give us the recognition of where we are and where we are going. This involves balance, recognition of muscle tension, the estimates of the magnitude and direction of forces on the body, etc. It turns out that these so-called senses rely on feedback from ...


2

"When going to school I wore necklaces with starfish pendants." "When I went to school I wore necklaces with starfish pendants." Speaking as a native British speaker, I instinctively see the difference as follows. When going to school I wore necklaces with starfish pendants. ---> When travelling to school I wore necklaces with starfish pendants. ...


1

The key issue here involves the word them, which appears in the highlighted sentence in multiple editions of A Voyage to Arcturus. I think this word is a typo—and at least one edition of the book agrees with me. From David Lindsay, A Voyage to Arcturus (1963): Maskull gazed at the fantastically piled rock all around them. "I saw these rocks from ...


1

The meaning is quite subtle. Traditionally this has been said by a woman in defence of a man. It could however convey a hint of sarcasm depending on the tone and circumstances. Example "Your husband John doesn't have much to say for himself does he?" "Well, I know he doesn't talk a lot. Let's just say he's the strong, silent type." Remaining silent is ...


1

In the US, a "watchdog agency" is an official arm of the government that protects citizens from the overreach by other parts of the government or by private organizations regulated by the government. An example of the former is the General Accountability Office (GAO), which audits executive agencies to make sure that appropriated monies are spent properly. ...


1

In Britain it is quite normal and everyday to refer to a local or central- government supervisory body, informally, as a watchdog. In this BBC report you will see that the Independent Police Complaints Commission is referred to as The Police Watchdog.


1

I think it is an appropriate definition, according to Collins Dictionary a watchdog is: a person or group of persons that acts as a protector or guardian against inefficiency, illegal practices, etc. (as modifier): a watchdog committee. The Cambridge Dictionary provides the following definitions: Government watchdog: UK a ...


1

Remuneration It can refer to a regular wage or salary as well as (irregular) ad-hoc payments, but I've often seen it used in the context of attendance fees.



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