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As @Kris noted, the word equipment is a mass noun, meaning that it refers to a quantity of something as a discrete, undifferentiated entity. Singular verb forms are used with mass nouns, so you should "is" rather than "are" in this case. But it's an awkward sentence either way. It would be more natural to use some other verb than "to be" to relate the two ...
The use of a colon here would change the emphasis, as the em dash is being used to set off a parenthetical statement. He could also have written it like so: On the sled, securely lashed, was a long and narrow oblong box. There were other things on the sled (blankets, an axe, and a coffee-pot and frying-pan), but prominent, occupying most of the space, ...
He intended to group the coffee pot and frying pan together for the reader. Presumably, he did this because they are both cooking vessels.
Number 1 actually looks OK. In #2, "smoke, drink" s/b "smoke or drink" In #3, there should be "and" after "sport, " In #4, it might be better with a semicolon after "sport" rather than a comma, but it's fine as-is. BTW: in AmE, one would not literally say "he does some sport"; we would say "he participates in a sport", or "he plays ...
This still uses neither/nor for a list of three, but to my ear it works: ...And neither smokes nor drinks nor takes drugs.
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