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3

I'll stick my neck out on a limb... I think this is a good example of a malaphor.


2

I read this as, "[if you] don't, somebody is sure[ly] going to to take her away from you." The word "sure" used as an adverb to "going"; the basic meaning is unchanged if you omit it. Therefore, "don't somebody sure" isn't a phrase with a meaning in its own right, as illustrated by Colin Fine's example in the comments, above.


2

(11) is an argument schemata because it uses what are called metalanguage variables 'A' and 'B'. These are variables for which you can substitute sentences of your object language (in your case, English). Let A = 'dogs are black' and B = 'cats are happy' and you get: Dogs are black or cats are happy Dogs aren't black. Therefore, cats are happy. ...


2

Words like 'the', 'a', and 'of' are often called syncategorematic words, words "that do not stand by themselves... (i.e. prepositions, logical connectives, etc.)" (here). Examples of syncategorematic terms include: articles (for example, 'the' and 'a') connectives (for example, 'and' and 'or') prepositions (for exmaple, 'in' and 'at') quantifiers (for ...


1

You've got a lot of questions going on here, which is bad form: stick to one question per post, and make it clear. Avoid rambling. To address this specific question: What would be the semantic difference between 'The play starts at 10:00pm at Rosedale' and 'Play starts 10:00pm Rosedale'? In the first, "the play" is a noun phrase and would be interpreted ...


0

The and a/an are called Articles. They are sometimes hard to define because we use them so often without thinking about what they mean! But an article is simply a word that is used to describe what kind of noun is being described. It can be a definite (specific) noun "Throw the ball, the one in your hand." or an indefinite (non-specific) noun "Throw a ball, ...



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