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English is polite by default, it's other languages that are optionally rude. You raised the polite/rude second pronoun example; well English used to have thou in addition to you. Thou was used by superiors to inferiors, or if you wanted to be rude, whereas you was used when respect is given. Over time, upper class people tended to use polite pronouns like ...


There seems to be no "official" word. You will find " nibling ", by analogy with sibling. (But it is mentioned only in the "New Words & Slang" section of Merriam-Webster, or in site like This thread also mentions: that there is no encompassing word for aunt/uncle either that there is no male/female form of cousin. the article "...


This comes up a lot with cousin as many other languages have more words for different types of cousin than English, though not always in the same way as you say for the Chinese languages. Generally, we just say "cousin" unless it's particularly relevant. If it was relevant we might be happy enough that the subsequent her does indicate her being female. We ...


English is not intrinsically rude, it's just that certain social assumptions are not built in, as they are in Hindi. Instead, deference is optional. As user21820's answer states, there are various ways of showing deference (to one's elders, if one wishes), such as honorifics. Choice of words means a lot, as does various phrasing choices. For instance, "I'm ...


Your cousin's first son is your first cousin once removed. It is quite confusing!


The non-birthing part of a lesbian relationship having a child is often called the co-mother (last sense—ignore the previous senses, they're very rare in normal settings, at least in my experience). So your friend would be a co-mother-to-be or (perhaps less likely to make you suffer a hyphen overdose) expecting co-mother.


Using the inverted-gender pronoun for the partner in a homosexual relationship who is not physically pregnant is entirely sensible, although a bit odd. If you want an alternative, parent-to-be is a fair term which is not mismatched on gender and does not include the same health restrictions as mother-to-be. Of course, one wonders how you would describe a ...


X is "the only child" of his parents, and "an only child" along with Y and Z. Similarly, I am "the" elder child of my parents and "an" elder (and eldest) child along with bunches of other people. One refers to the specific situation; the other refers to the classification. Edited to add: Consider the following examples: "The": Census interviewer: Do ...


That would be sister-in-law: sister of one's spouse, the wife of one's brother, or sometimes the wife of one's spouse's brother. Edit: as ShreevatsaR points out in the comments, if you're looking for a single word that means only "wife of one's brother" and nothing else, then you're out of luck.


The reason there's a TH in the English words father, mother, and brother, but not in sister, is that there was a *t in the Proto-Indo-European roots for father, mother, and brother, but not in the PIE root for sister. The series of consonant changes recorded in Grimm's Law made those PIE *t stops change into fricatives; these fricatives are the sounds ...


In Britain, it is normally partner. However, other half is common too. It connotes being half of a couple, which may be just what you want.


Perhaps something mildly humorous might do the trick. For instance: "We're pregnant, but I'm still allowed to drink and go bungee-jumping". "We decided that as I was better at rugby than her, she'd be the one taking a break". "It turns out I'm having to drink for two".


I beg to differ with John Lawler’s answer. The proto-Germanic word for sister is *swestēr. So it is perfectly reasonable to ask why the /t/ in the ancestors of the words for “father”, “brother”, “mother” becomes th, while the /t/ in the Germanic ancestor of “sister” does not. The answer is that Grimm’s law affects freestanding /t/, but does not affect the /t/...


An uncle or an aunt who are younger than their nieces or nephews are called uncle and aunt. The terms are not based on age but on parental relationships: the ​brother of someone's ​mother or ​father, or the ​husband of someone's ​aunt or uncle: (Cambridge Dictionary)


Empty nester might be of your interest, although it's not that formal.


For formal writing, betrothed would be my number one choice. But, as Lunatik already gave that answer, I'll provide some more: spouse-to-be (instead of the gender-specific wife-to-be and husband-to-be), future spouse, prospective spouse, intended (date and informal). Of course, it's much easier to refer to use adjectives and refer to the couple as a whole, ...


You have noticed a very peculiar aspect of English vocabulary. As rich as it is in comparison to many other languages, due to its almost creole history, it really is impoverished in comparison to other languages in kinship terms. But 'why' is always a difficult question, especially when mixed with cultural questions. There are the difficulties with Sapir-...


It's very easy to determine the relationship in English. First, find your common ancestor. Siblings have the same father, cousins have the same grandfather, etc. Same grandfather means First cousin. Same great-grandfather means second cousin. Same great-great-grandfather means third cousin. If you are not in the same generation, pick the shortest one, ...


It comes from Middle English modyr in lawe. As far as I understand it, the term was first used in the 14th or 15th century. The idea behind it is that your mother-in-law has the same rights and duties as your biological mother and is given these rights and duties by the legal pact of marriage.


She would feel a "sisterly love" — the love of a sister — for her brother. A mother feels "motherly love" for her children, etc. The reason for possible confusion stems from the use of "brotherly love" to describe in a general way the love of human beings for each other, similar to the way "mankind" also includes women.


"Dad" is a specific reference (when you say it you mean somebody different from when I say it), so it gets capitalized like any proper noun. On the other hand, "dad" is a common noun meaning "father" (anybody's). You only use disambiguators like "my" or "a" with common nouns ("my dad", but not "my Dad" just like you wouldn't say "my John Smith"). So the ...


English is just a language and cannot be rude; it is the people who use it who might be rude (intentionally or otherwise). One can use the modal "could": Could you do it? Adding various phrases are also recommended as basic courtesy: Could you please do it? Could you do it, please? To address adults: Sir/Madam, could you please do it? ...


In English, relationships are based purely on family lineage and gender of the person. Some languages distinguish on other features, for example: In Swedish, mother's mother is mormor; father's mother is farmor. In English, both are grandmother. In Thai, elder brother is pêe; younger brother is nóng. In English, both are brother. So to directly answer ...


According to Google NGram, in British English the spelling "grandad" is more popular than "granddad", however American English, the spelling "granddad" is more popular than "grandad". American English: British English:


The answer to the similar question you mention actually has your answer. No, there is no gender-neutral word your parents' siblings. From the answer: This thread also mentions: that there is no encompassing word for aunt/uncle either that there is no male/female form of cousin. the article "There isn't word for it":


It seems you interpreted this passage incorrectly. The elder twin is the one who was born first (earliest) chronologically. The narrator is lamenting the fact that the wise younger twin, Arabella, was born second, as her twin sibling seems to be making a mess of the inheritance process.


People have used "sistern" for this. The first use I find in Google books is from 1739: That there were 20 Bretheren and Siſtern on their Bead Roll, I suspect this plural was invented to serve as a parallel to "brethren"; I did not find it in the dictionaries I checked, and it is a much rarer word than "brethren". UPDATE: as Unreason points out, I ...


I don't think there's a single word on the order of orphan and widow/widower. I would say bereaved parents.


There's not really one that I'm aware of-- or one that at least, as you said, doesn't carry other strange connotations with it or isn't long/awkward/wordy. Honestly, I would just recommend 'boyfriend' for everyday use. I know it sounds a little juvenile (I've been with my girlfriend for much less time than you and it already feels a little insufficient), ...


Talking about the archaic use of bastard to mean “illegitimate child”, it is not specifically masculine. One can talk about a “bastard daugther” just as much as one can talk of a “bastard son” or “bastard child”, as Google ngram shows. Well, not as much, because lineage or legitimacy is not nearly as important for daughters as it is for sons, but still, such ...

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