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My understanding is that you only hyphenate two words when you want to make a new single compound word out of them. So, "open source" is a phrase and "open-source" is a word. Using the compound word can make a sentence more clearer, eg "Can you give me the open source software standards" risks being parsed as "Can you give me the source software ...


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In some cases of dangling hyphens, the hyphen is put (back) into a word that used to commonly have it or occasionally still does. For example "inter- and intra-species". You may be able to do something similar in this case: "neuro-degenerative and -inflammatory". If you couldn't get away with the hyphenated forms, this wouldn't work. A good internal peer ...


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This is called "suspensive hyphenation," according to my copy of the AP Style manual. However, I don't think you can do it here. To start of with, most would agree your suggestion does not carry its intended meaning. [...] the development of neuro-degenerative and inflammatory disorders. This clearly discusses two types of diseases: ...


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As I was writing this reply, the spellchecker flags timestep as not a word, so based on that I'd avoid it. Whether you need the hyphen or not depends on your usage. If you're using it as a compound adjective, it needs a hyphen; e.x. time-step methods for solving differential equations. The words time and step describe the method together so you hyphenate. If ...


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Semiannual is one word, without hyphens, according to Merriam-Webster. Semiannual



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