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6

Names of languages are always capitalized in English, unlike in some other languages. This is true whether the name of the language is part of a compound or not.


0

Those three words can be placed in that order such that they are part of a normal sentence, and I'm not sure why anyone would consider using hyphens. "The needle I put in that haystack is going to be hard to find" In this example I'm still referring to something with the property of 'not readily located' but I'm not using the phrase 'hard to find' as a ...


0

Whether preceding or following a noun, the phrase is open per Chicago MOS 7.85, "When the adverb rather than the compound as a whole is modified by another adverb, the entire expression is open." Chicago's example: "a very much needed addition." Therefore, in both constructions, "His plan was well thought out" and "It was a well thought out plan" the phrase ...


1

Typically speaking, there is no significant difference between "two thirds" and "two-thirds". Which one to use is mostly a matter of style and is not important when determining reader or listener comprehension. In the case of something like an IELTS exam, I would expect both "two thirds" and "two-thirds" to be accepted as correct answers. If I were marked ...


3

As John Lawler comments, and as this chart makes clear,... ...rightmost isn't normally hyphenated. And there's no need for one in upper rightmost.


-1

However you punctuate it, this is appalling English. Why don’t you say “closest to the upper-right-hand corner”?


0

As a rule of thumb, think of the possible confusion. Is it a slip that is rate dependent or is the friction dependent on the slip rate. Clearly the latter. Therefore: slip-rate dependent. ("hyphen" and "dash" are synonymous. "en dash" doesn't exist.)


2

Open compounds like "slip rate" should be used in compound adjectives with an en dash: slip rate–dependent friction. Chicago Manual of Style, quoted from here: The en dash can be used in place of a hyphen in a compound adjective when one of its elements consists of an open compound or when both elements consist of hyphenated compounds.


1

There are plenty of (adj.)-ism nouns in English (as well as other in languages): existentialism, expressivism, intellectualism, moralism, nationalism, parallelism. I particularly liked masculinism and incendiarism. ;) Edit: Found two other funny ones: prettyism and reliabilism. Source: English words suffixed with -ism


0

In examples the hyphen is used almost as "parentheses" grouping words together. For example, food-handling department vs. food handling-department. In those cases they tend to be used to group words that are collectively qualifying a noun. Food handling department would still likely be understood even without the hyphen. Similarly, living-room is not used ...


0

These compounds are so easily read without hyphens that you can definitely eliminate them. No ambiguity results by their omission. One would certainly not hyphenate "income tax queries" or "social security benefits." Some are just so common and clear enough that hyphens are certainly unneeded. Their inclusion is not incorrect either, though.


1

You should add a hyphen whenever you're using a compound adjective for a noun that is being used as a single descriptor for the noun. For example in the phrase you provided, graded-reading is a single descriptor all together for the noun books, and saying graded books, or reading books separately, won't make sense to imply what you mean. So, yes, you must ...


3

If the books are about reading that is graded then yes, you can use a hyphen (probably what you need). If the books are about reading and the books themselves are graded don't use a hyphen. Also, check out ell.


-2

I find many words in dictionaries have a definition (necessary: definition follows), but others do no (unnecessary: not necessary) as we see here I still have to look up the word necessary to find out what not necessary means. Using the word nonsense as another example I will show sense (has definitions) but nonsense (has definitions but they are not ...


0

The U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual (PDF), in multiple contexts throughout Section 12 (“Numerals”), gives the following examples of correct usage: the 1-mile road 6-inch guns four-room houses 5-foot-wide entrance seven-story building 8-year-old wine So, while I can’t find a rule that actually spells this out, they seem to favor a hyphen ...


0

"This is a 1000 square-foot room." The Associated Press style guide has a section on dimensions. Although it doesn't directly say, the examples online show no hyphen between the number (or units) and what is being measured. You should spell out the units entirely. There is no central authority on how to write proper English, so there may be other ...


2

English documents written in India often use :-. For example: Tatkal tickets shall be issued only on production of one of the ten prescribed proofs of identity shown under (as mentioned in Commercial Circular No.68 of 2012 issued vide letter No.2011/TG-I/20/P/ID dated 01.11.2012) as per procedure explained below:- The details of medical camps conducted by ...


1

In a non-searchable and potentially ephemeral comment to the original posting, Professor Lawler kindly presented the following answer: First, it focuses on degree of experience. Second, it contrasts others’ experience with yours. Third, many people use fewer and less inappropriately, and this obviates the possibility of someone reading this in that way, ...


2

No. This is a case of an adverb (“less”) modifying an adjectival participle (“experienced”), which in turn is modifying a noun phrase of the noun+noun type (“team members”). It is not a case where a phrase of two or more words serves as if it were a single adjective modifying a directly following noun or noun phrase, and ...


0

The simple answer is that the non-hyphenated version is more appropriate - and more commonly used - in the example sentence that you give. The hyphenated version is more commonly seen as a compound adjective, sometimes as a jargon phrase. Indeed, I have seen it used as a perjorative, sarcastic term, although that is not common usage. So in summary, ...


2

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, as quoted by the site below, you hyphenate if the compound adjective is before the noun and don't hyphenate if it is after the noun. With compound adjectives formed from the adverb well and a participle (e.g., well-known), or from a phrase (e.g., up-to-date), you should use a hyphen (or hyphens) when the ...


0

I would hyphenate if you're using it as a compound adjective, otherwise not. eg: Here is the up-to-date version of the document. Come in early tomorrow and we'll get you up to date. I think valid arguments could be made to contradict this stance, but it is my preference.


0

The former seems to be more correct: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/up-to-date



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