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You need to figure out the structure of the phrase (or word), then put a hyphen between the most closely connected elements, which will be those that make a unit with each other but with no other element. I think the structure is: [[human [skin tissue]] emulating] gel and if that's right, the two most closely connected elements are "skin" and ...


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You need a hyphen between the words tissue and emulating, but nowhere else. The reason is that skin is simply an attributive noun to tissue (it functions as a adjective), and human is also an attributive noun. Thus human and skin are just cascading "adjectives" that do not combine into a single unit with tissue, and therefore do not require multiple ...


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Many grammar guides, such as grammarbook.com and Grammar Girl, do advise writers to use a hyphen when compound adjectives come before the noun they modify, but as John Lawler commented, it's not a definitive rule. It's pretty much like the Oxford comma; there are people who'll complain if you use it and there are people who'll complain if you don't. The ...


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In most cases both are correct. However, if you thinks that there may be some ambiguity regarding if it is a study of urban-scale or a scale-study of urban kind, you may use the hyphenated version to clarify.


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The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th Edition, addresses this question indirectly in section 5.117: The en dash is also used in place of a hyphen in a compound adjective when one of the elements of the adjective is an open compound (such as New York) or when two or more of the elements are hyphenated compounds: New York–London flight ...


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"non" isn't a word, so you can't write this: non red-haired [noun] This is less wrong, but I still don't like it: non-red haired [noun] We've lost the link between "red" and "haired," so someone might interpret it as "hairy [noun] which is not red." I like this form: non-red-haired [noun] In this case, it's clear we're negating the entire ...



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