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4

The OED is one of the most authoritative sources on this kind of thing: Etymology: Repr. French -isme, Latin -ismus, < Greek -ισμός, forming nouns of action from verbs in -ίζειν, e.g. βαπτίζειν to dip, baptize, βαπτισμός the action of dipping, baptism. An allied suffix was -ισμα(τ-), which more strictly expressed the finished act or thing done, and ...


4

Direct from Greek ῥυθμός (rhythmos). "rh" is not an unusual word start in Greek, "y" is just a vowel, "-os" turned into "-us" in Latin then fell off when accepted into English, so the vowel that would have been in the syllable with "m" went away.


4

Yes, you are right that Definition 1.1 (= A thing providing concealment or protection) applies here. However, I see the "contrast" (and not the "collusion") being used as a screen to conceal the parties' collusion and protect them from public criticism/outcry that would arise from the discovery of their collusion. The thinking being that the public ...


2

To answer number one: Steely Dan has a song on their album Pretzel Logic called Charlie Freak. The song revolves around a man who sells everything he owns for drugs. So, with this example, we see that the word was used beyond boarding schools. (The album was recorded in New York, 1974.) EDIT: Added year of song


2

Freak was common in the 70s and I was in public school. "Freak" in slang usage connotes sexual activity or kinky sex. Urban Dictionary


2

If a reader were to open an English book printed in the 17th century, one of the first things he'd notice would be the unconventional spellings, and how most nouns were capitalized. Just like the German today, it was customary during the late 17th century and the end of the 18th century to emphasize all the nouns (or nearly) with a capital letter, but there ...


2

Gotcha! is used in this 1916 book in the sense you want, but not by an aeroplane pilot, sorry, airplane pilot. But I would assume the term could feasibly be used by an airplane pilot. Another example. Note: You can search for phrases using Google Ngram, like this one. You have to keep in mind that not all uses have the same meaning. I gotcha has a lot of ...


2

The zero conditional is called that, because it is not really a condition. When speakers present an action or state in factual conditional terms (the so-called Zero Conditional), they are stating that they accept that action or state as reality If you heat ice, it melts. If Andrea cooks, I wash up. If it’s ten o’clock already, then I’m late. General ...


1

The idiom is explicitly "three cheers and a tiger", for special occasions when the normal 'three cheers' was or is not exuberant enough. Wordreference seems to think it originated in the American Civil War, as a low growl reaching a crescendo; Straight Dope accords more with the British experience, of a fourth cheer becoming an enthusiastic babble.


1

Interesting! I'd not come across this before. According to the OED, it is (or was): U.S. slang. A shriek or howl (often the word ‘tiger’) terminating a prolonged and enthusiastic cheer; a prolongation, finishing touch, final burst. 1845 onwards. "tiger, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2014. Web. 21 November 2014.


1

The phrases "principle of action" and "principle of conduct" don't seem like idioms to me, nor divorced from their constituent words. Rather your examples seem to me to be straightforward applications of the word principle. From the OED's entry for principle, for example, we read: I.b: A fundamental source from which something proceeds. II.: ...


1

The best word or phrase to use would depend on the nationality and social standing of the pilot. For an upper-class Englishman "Hurrah" or "By gosh, that was easy." For an American, perhaps "Gotcha".


1

0 conditional If it rains, I take my umbrella. 1 conditional "If it rains, I'll take my umbrellla. 2 contditional If it rained, I'd take my umbrella. 3 conditional If it had rained, I would have taken my umbrella. In the 0 conditional "if" can usually be interchanged with "when".


1

John Bartlett, Dictionary of Americanisms, second edition (1859) identifies several terms from various parts of the United States that might suit. From New York: HIGHBINDER. A riotous fellow. New York slang. From what was then considered the Western part of the United States: SCROUGER. A bouncing fellow or girl. A Western vulgarism. and ...



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