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Although rarely heard today, this construction comes down from Old and Middle English, where it was quite common. Because we find it in both our sister and our cousin tongues, it probably originated in a common grandparent, possibly way back in Proto-Indo-European. In his monumental work An Historical Syntax of the English Language, Volume 1, F.Th. Visser ...


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The adjunct is a verbless clause. The choice of case for the subject of such an adjunct is a matter of style: in your example, the nominative "he"/"she" being the formal variant, accusative "him"/"her" the informal. The clause, although verbless, nevertheless contains a predicative element (cf. "He is/him being an artist and "She is/her being a singer".)


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Let's attempt to look at this another way. Instead of focusing on the "encouraged" part of the statement, let's look at all parts. "encouraged with--encouraged by": As you can see, the 'by' variant is the outright winner, but this doesn't tell the whole story. Now let's examine the latter part of Ryan's sentence, and you'll see that "with" is more ...


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As regards grammar, there is nothing wrong in the first translation. We may add "WHO" but in that case we need to remove "that" as used in the sentence. I don't know Russian. Translations never do full justice to a literary piece. It seems to me that the first translation is, perhaps, literal or ad verbum while the latter holds the spirit or Intent. Way of ...


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The statement given by you apparently describes an interdisciplinary research effort, not the result. Here the research effort itself is a result of blending techniques and perspectives from different disciplines. There is no mention of the final result of the research. From Cambridge dictionary: resulting: adjective [ before noun ] caused by the ...


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Idiomatically, the request should have been the other way around - for you to not hold your decision against her. Hold something against someone idiom Allow past actions or circumstances to have a negative influence on one’s present attitude towards someone: if he failed her, she would hold it against him forever - ODO


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Every dictionary I'm looking at here says "spake" is simply an (archaic) past tense of "speak." Variations happen. They used to happen more than now, especially in spelling.


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To answer your "gist" question, Which is the correct preposition, "by" or "with"? Why? both are "correct". Your question would best be, instead, which is the most effective preposition? Why? Because the question pertains to spoken English (Ryan's, during the media interview), repeated in quotes and paraphrases in written English (in published ...


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Forget everything you have read until now in the answers, and, forget google and Ingram. He said /with/ instead of /by/, most likely due to one of the principal features of spoken language versus written language. There are many lists re these features on the internet, most of them do not cover using one word instead of another when the speaker is actually ...


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First the obvious: "Encouraged by" is the standard and markedly more common expression, and news outlets that standardized the expression probably did so accidentally, because "encouraged with" is comparatively uncommon. I would next note that "by" is active, while "with" is passive. "I am disgusted by the candidates" because they are actively disgusting ...


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"encouraged" can be either an adjective or a past participle of the verb "encourage" used in a passive construction. One way to tell the difference is to notice whether "encouraged" is modified by "very", since "very" modifies adjectives but not verbs (nor participles of verbs, because those are still verbs). So "Ryan was encouraged" could either be a ...



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