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5

This is a typical use of the past perfect. In a narrative like this, the use of the past perfect establishes that there is a temporal focus (even though the writer has not given any explicit information about it), and placed other events in the past relative to that focus. The reader can expect that the following sentences will relate to that temporal focus. ...


4

"I dislike his being blunt" means I dislike it when he speaks in a blunt manner. "I dislike him being blunt" means I dislike this person-- when he is being blunt. Actually, the first is more grammatically correct--and this is probably what the speaker means to say--- but people very often use the second way.


4

It's both. Or, it's either or. There is really no way to syntactically say for sure in a sentence whether a passive participle is acting as a predicative subject complement or whether it is part of a passive verb construction. Whether to interpret devastated here as an adjective or the matrix verb depends entirely on the semantics of the sentence. If it's ...


3

Depends is correct because whatever is singular. This has nothing to do the use of future simple in the preceding part of the sentence: it is just a matter of subject-verb agreement in the noun clause. However, the sentence makes very little sense even with the correct conjugation.


3

Because it indicates that the speaker does not pronounce it differently than without the apostrophe. Once a word is already plural and ends in /z/, we don’t add another /z/ to make it possessive. It sounds exactly the same. But we do add an apostrophe in writing so that people know what we meant, for goodness’ sake. :)


2

I think option 1 and 3 are correct but 2 is definitely wrong. I can feel it when reading aloud due to the use of the present tense and the past tense in the same sentence.


2

With the split infinitive, the syntactic attraction of the adverb is to the infinitive. Compare You are now allowed to quickly eat dinner. This gives you permission to gobble your food. But the semantic attraction of officially to the permission granted by allowed is strong enough that it's unlikely anyone would interpret the sentence to mean that the ...


2

This is an old trope meaning to be seized with fear. The earliest that the Ngram viewer finds is from the periodical Punch from 1843. The phrasing's use is more directly illustrated in Rudyard Kiplings's story "Gemini" from Indian Tales (1890): Then a new fear came upon me and my bowels turned to water Consider a terror so great that the person so ...


2

Let's attempt to look at this another way. Instead of focusing on the "encouraged" part of the statement, let's look at all parts. "encouraged with--encouraged by": As you can see, the 'by' variant is the outright winner, but this doesn't tell the whole story. Now let's examine the latter part of Ryan's sentence, and you'll see that "with" is more ...


2

The number of different possibilities exceeds the amount of time available to make a verified account of the involved individuals and their specific circumstances. Dynamic conditions can make an accurate accounting time-dependant. By the time the information is reported by one person, it may have changed, making the existing report incorrect. Where data is ...


2

It's important here to distinguish between the preterite form of a verb, and the past tense meaning that is normally associated with the preterite form. The modal preterite use of some English verbs indicates modality, as the OP points out (not past time). For example, in I wish you went to the doctor more often than you do. ...or.. If you went to ...


2

The "past week" refers to the most recent week. If this is the fourth week of July, the "past" week would be the third week of July. The "last week" refers to the final week in a series. If the fourth week of July is the last, or final of four weeks of July, the current week would be the last week of July. "Last" week can be used for the "past" week, if ...


1

The difference is "past week" would be to count back exactly a week from now, while "last week" is the calendar week preceding the present week. "Past week" is usually used when going through something/event. "Last week" is usually used to point to that particular week. Example: For the past week, it was raining heavily. Last week, it was ...


1

"to London" OED, deliver, v, definition 8.b To hand over, transfer, commit to another's possession or keeping; spec. to give or distribute to the proper person or quarter (letters or goods brought by post, carrier, or messenger); to present (an account, etc.). Const. to, or with simple dative. Here, const. stands for "construed with" and is used to ...


1

People would know what you mean. However, one of the sentences sounds a little strange. Here's why... "You are now allowed to officially eat dinner." This is not preferred. In this sentence, "officially" modifies "eat". That's because the two words are next to each other. So then, how do you eat officially? You can eat quickly. You can eat happily. ...


1

The full form of your sentence is: ''I forgive X for everything because of his smile.'' (I removed 'obsolete' because it doesn't affect the answer, and because I'm pretty sure you are using the wrong word here). Here are usage examples. You will find "forgive X of everything" used, but it is used less frequently. 'For' is used in dictionary examples. ...


1

As regards grammar, there is nothing wrong in the first translation. We may add "WHO" but in that case we need to remove "that" as used in the sentence. I don't know Russian. Translations never do full justice to a literary piece. It seems to me that the first translation is, perhaps, literal or ad verbum while the latter holds the spirit or Intent. Way of ...


1

This is a very broad question, even if we limit ourselves to changes within the last, say 20 years or so. I'll make a start, though, working from first principles. Two extremes of learning a language are memorise everything independently and find general rules. The first can lead to difficulties with new words or contexts, while the second tends to ...


1

To answer your "gist" question, Which is the correct preposition, "by" or "with"? Why? both are "correct". Your question would best be, instead, which is the most effective preposition? Why? Because the question pertains to spoken English (Ryan's, during the media interview), repeated in quotes and paraphrases in written English (in published ...


1

Forget everything you have read until now in the answers, and, forget google and Ingram. He said /with/ instead of /by/, most likely due to one of the principal features of spoken language versus written language. There are many lists re these features on the internet, most of them do not cover using one word instead of another when the speaker is actually ...


1

First the obvious: "Encouraged by" is the standard and markedly more common expression, and news outlets that standardized the expression probably did so accidentally, because "encouraged with" is comparatively uncommon. I would next note that "by" is active, while "with" is passive. "I am disgusted by the candidates" because they are actively disgusting ...


1

"encouraged" can be either an adjective or a past participle of the verb "encourage" used in a passive construction. One way to tell the difference is to notice whether "encouraged" is modified by "very", since "very" modifies adjectives but not verbs (nor participles of verbs, because those are still verbs). So "Ryan was encouraged" could either be a ...


1

There's no "something-o-something" happening, it's just "something-something" and one of the things happens to end in an "o". "o" isn't a joining word, it's part of the word "Franco" which means "pertaining to France" (from Latin I believe). France may be the only country that gets this sort of word. With other countries you'd just use the standard ...


1

Both Current open position and currently open position are grammatically correct. Current open position: It is formed by 2 adjectives, current and open. It is definitely OK to use 2 adjectives to describe a noun. Currently open position: It is formed by position, described by another relative clause, currently open. You can add adverbs before an adjective, ...


1

The general rule for using 'small' is in reference to the size of something. So, for example The pile of junk has gotten smaller Less is used in cases where there is a lower amount of something that does not have defined quantities. You cannot accurately quantize 'junk' There is less junk than before You would use fewer if you had a way of ...


1

As I understand it: - the status is called active (or inactive?) - the function is called set active The basic problem is that the two status & function names are not compatible. What is the opposite function called?: - is it a different function called set inactive; or - is it the same set active function being called in reverse? If different, ...


1

Some say that the usage of "the best" is ambiguous but has come to be accepted now. Technically, both are the same, with the usage of "the" sounding more informal and the lack of it being less grammatical(but not incorrect) in nature. Here is the article I referred to: https://jakubmarian.com/like-more-vs-like-better-like-the-most-vs-like-most-like-the-best-...


1

It's incorrect, though perhaps it's a common error (I haven't noticed it myself). "Revealed" is a past participle. You could use it with the present perfect or past perfect tense, e.g. "has not revealed" or "had not revealed." But you cannot use it with "does" or "did." In that case, as you noted, the correct usage is "does not reveal" or "did not reveal."


1

The present perfect tense ("have to take") can be used with present tense ("is gone") in the same sentence with no problem, as in #1. The same goes for the past perfect tense ("had to take") and the past tense ("was gone"), as in #3. But you can't use the past perfect with present tense (as in #2) or the present perfect with past tense (e.g. *"I have to take ...



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