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28

When I first heard about this usage in a grammar lesson in middle school, it sounded weird to me, too. As in the linked page in your answer, my teacher taught us that using possessive pronouns (also known as genitives) is the only grammatical way to mark subjects of gerund clauses. While that way is more traditional and formal, using object pronouns ...


26

You can find such a list, for instance, in the Penguin Handbook. The relevant categories are: Verbs Followed by Infinitives Most verbs are followed by infinitives. If the verb is not found in the list below, it is probably followed by an infinitive. Verbs Followed by Gerunds The verbs in the following table all need to be followed by gerunds. The ...


25

The a- prefix is a reduction of Old English an/on, meaning on, used to express progressive aspect. English used to have more of a distinction between present simple and present progressive; what we now say as “the times are changing” was expressed in Old English as “the times change”. In order to emphasise the progressive aspect (the times are currently in ...


22

Yes all gerunds end with -ing. Asking why is a bit of a tricky question, but basically it boils down to the fact that there were no historical processes that messed this up. The English past tense and past participle, for example, are very complicated for reasons going back to PIE. Germanic languages all use something called ablaut for past tenses and past ...


21

I presume you mean "solution" in the sense of finding a way to overcome a problem. In that case, "solution" is the noun form of "solve". There's no need to take a noun derived from a verb and then derive yet another verb from that noun. You say "We are working on solving the problem", NOT "We are working on solutioning the problem." If by "solution" you ...


19

They're of course both grammatical, but there is a conventional meaning difference that may not be obvious, as there often is with a verb like try that takes both Equi infinitive and Equi gerund complements. Such available bandwidth is likely to get used for pragmatic purposes. In this case, the gerund is the one without any special entailments — i.e, ...


18

A gerund is a form of a verb used as a noun, whereas a participle is a form of verb used as an adjective or as a verb in conjunction with an auxiliary verb. In English, the present participle has the same form as the gerund, and the difference is in how they are used. When used with an auxiliary verb ("is walking"), it serves as a verb and is the present ...


17

Actually, to my understading, the form with double l (e.g. "travelling") is more common in British English, while in American English the spelling would be with single l ("traveling"). It seems that Irish, Australian, NZ, and Canadian varieties generally prefer the (British) double l versions. More information e.g. at the Wikipedia article on ...


16

Both are correct, but they have very different meanings. I stopped working means I once worked, and now no longer do. I stopped to work means that I once was doing something (unspecified, based on context), and I ceased from doing it so that I could work. The infinitive (to work) here has the meaning of in order to work and so that I could work. So I ...


14

First, I don't think you're actually looking for a gerund. In English, a gerund refers to using a verb as a noun, and since you don't have another conjugated verb in the last phrase, I think you're actually looking for a participle (and wikipedia tells me in Portuguese, gerúndio refers to an adverbial participle, so that makes sense) Now, as DeepYellow ...


13

In English, the form V + -ing is called a gerund if it serves as a noun. For example, the gerund form of "run" is "running". (I like cats, I like dogs, I like running). However, not all V + ing forms are gerunds--in "I am running", "running" is another verb. This blog post explains that there are a few cases where you use to + V + -ing: 1) If the to is ...


12

From Gerunds and Infinitives Part 1, if you consider "to produce/for producing" as a complement in your phrase: Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as the subject or the complement of a sentence. However, as subjects or complements, gerunds usually sound more like normal, spoken English, whereas infinitives sound more abstract. In the ...


11

OK, first let's take a look at what some grammar books say, then try to make it comprehensible with some examples: CGEL says: The infinitival is more associated with change, the gerund-participle with actuality. Thus someone who has recently turned forty or got married might say "I like being forty" or "I like being married". An infinitival would be ...


11

To answer the original question: Yes, gerunds all end with -ing, simply by definition. A gerund is, in Latin, a form of the verb which can be construed as (i.e. has functional characteristics of) a noun - it can act as subject or object of a verb, for example, or can take a plural ending. In English, the only category which meets this definition are "verbal ...


11

The to in this sentence is not the Infinitive Complementizer to. It's the Preposition to, part of the complex preposition prior to, which means the same as before: Samson had been a strong man prior to having his hair cut. Samson had been a strong man before having his hair cut. So the gerund clause having his hair cut is the object of the preposition ...


11

Morning! The below is just an hypothesis, but it sounds convincing enough to me. A gerund is special kind of word: it is both noun and verb at once (just as a participle is both verb and adjective). In its function as a verb, it can have an object: Augustus condemned his daughter's adultery. By condemning Julia, he set an example for the Empire. ...


10

The grammatical difference is that "I love to sing" uses an infinitive construction, whereas "I love singing" makes use of a gerund. The difference in meaning is that "I love to sing" is referring to yourself singing, whereas "I love singing" could either refer to yourself singing or others singing.


10

The 'g' in -ing is never pronounced. What is pronounced is the velar nasal consonant represented in IPA as [ŋ]. In some dialects, this is replaced by the alveolar nasal consonant represented in IPA as [n]. This is the phonetics that the -in' ending represents. The difference between [ŋg] and just [ŋ] can be heard in the difference between the words finger ...


10

If you precede the -ing form of the verb with a possessive determiner such as my, you emphasise the action. If you precede it with a personal pronoun such as me, you emphasise the person who is performing the action. I have posted about it on my former blog. For something more authoritative, you can read the British linguist David Crystal on the subject.


10

That's a mistake. It should be Use similes to describe the animals here below. You might want to get a different book.


9

It is perhaps worth adding the contrast identified in the ‘Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English’: When the possessive alternative is used, it focuses attention on the action described in the ‘-ing’ clause. In contrast the regular Noun Phrase form puts more emphasis on the person doing the action.


9

A gerund is used as a noun, a participle as an adjective. Gerund: Traveling is fun. Participle: The traveling man stopped. The Purdue Online Writing Lab has good explanation sheets on gerunds and participles.


9

1 and 2 are correct. 3 is wrong. You could break it into two sentences: He was charged with the crime. He killed 13 people. But I think what you really mean is: He was charged with the crime of killing 13 people.


8

Coming is a gerund (or 'gerund-participle'), while kindness is a noun. Although they are often interchangeable, they aren't always. In this case, "thank you for your coming" is not strictly incorrect (consider "thank you for your singing"), but the shorter formulation is preferable precisely because it's shorter. The problem with "thank you for kindness" ...


8

Confess to is what is variously called a phrasal verb or a preposition verb phrase or a prepositional phrasal verb: a combination VERB + PREPOSITION which acts together as a VERB. It takes a Direct Object, which must be a noun or noun phrase: He confessed to his admiration for his opponent. Edwards confessed to espionage on behalf of the KGB. ...


8

Because you need a noun to complete the phrasal verb objecting to XXX. That means you need a noun phrase there. Moving as a gerund is a noun. Move by itself is not one. You seem to have been distracted into thinking that there is a to-infinitive involved here. There is not. That to is part of object to, not part of to move.


8

It's true that you can sometimes generate a noun by adding -ing, like with "an understanding". It's not a universal rule, but in general, you can generate a noun that refers to the process of the verb — "a developing" sounds odd to me, but other examples, like "a ripening" (as in we can observe the ripening of the fruit) work for me. But my main point ...


8

Afraid of takes a noun phrase, such as I am always afraid of snakes which is often a non-finite clause with a verb in the gerund (-ing form) I am always afraid of falling I am always afraid of looking stupid I am always afraid of walking alone at night. Here the clause contains a passive verb, so the gerund is formed with the gerund of ...


7

See a great answer from Yahoo Answers The singular "l" in traveled is unique to American spelling. This does NOT make it wrong. It is perfectly acceptable as is the double "l" in the British spelling of travelled, The Oxford English Dictionary has a very good explanation that is not too far removed from the one you proffered to your ...


7

You need to say "making and controlling". What you have there is a parallel structure. A parallel structure is basically when you condense multiple sentences varying in only one item down to a single sentence with a list of the varied items: I entered the marathon. I entered the decathlon. I entered the pole vault. becomes I entered the ...



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