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1

I'm not sure exactly what OP means by "best etymological calque" here. Obviously there's no succinct equivalent "word-by-word translation" equivalent - that's why we (and several other languages) adopted the foreign term in the first place. Those who understand the two German words could perhaps "fill in the blanks" around the explicitly-stated harm/joy ...


2

During the 19th century, "achee" was also used for the sound of a sneeze. The earliest citation the OED has is 1843 for a-chew. And here we have earlier and simultaneous uses of atchi and atchee. Google books search shows that atchee continued being used into the last half of the 19th century. 1826: Enter Tallboy, sneezing. Tall. Atchi ! — here — ...


1

I think the reason that you find predominantly two major forms for sneezing (ending in [i:] and [u:] may be because most sneezes sound more or less like one of those two. I can vividly imagine a sneeze with either sound, so I find it very likely that the common onomatopoeias are reflecting that variation. Bear in mind that the Dutch and German examples that ...


0

The word "goose" comes into English from an ancient Germanic language that had something called strong declension. Basically, what it means is that these words, which include "foot" and "tooth," pluralize by changing the "oo" to "ee" (like foot/feet and tooth/teeth). So that's why the plural of "goose" is "geese." Similar rules come into play for the words ...



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