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6

"Stands for" is normally used when you are explaining an acronym or initialism, and may also be used for other forms of abbreviation: USA stands for "United States of America" Laser stands for "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation" CENTPACCOM stands for "Central Pacific Command". "Is short for" is more normally used for ...


4

Surely does not usually mean the same as certainly. We use certainly when we simply tell people that something is true. We use surely mostly to ask for people's agreement. Compare: House prices are certainly rising fast at the moment. (I know this is so.) House prices will surely stop rising soon. (I believe this must be so (and implication of [ ...


2

Certainly - emphatic affirmation of a truth. 'It's started snowing again'. 'It certainly has been a long hard winter' Surely - incredulous doubting of an apparent truth. 'Surely house prices will stop rising soon' (i.e. they seem way too high already) 'You're not going to have another doughnut, surely ?' (i.e. you've had three already) Surely can have ...


2

The "would" implies a conditional and is thus, as already mentioned, more polite. E.g. the host offers you tea but you prefer coffee: I would prefer coffee, (if that is possible/if you do not mind/if it does not trouble you) You can of course still say "I prefer coffee" without the conditional, but it just isn't as polite. One could infact understand ...


2

The version with "(woul)d" is more indirect and hence more polite. If you are rejecting an offer of a ride, e.g., the "'d" suggests that your rejection is due to a condition which is temporary or could not have been known to the person making the offer, and so no offense should be taken at the rejection.


2

An Elder is a term tentatively used as a noun, referring to someone of an aged person. Elder Noun An aged person. Older is used as an adjective and usually in the form of a comparison. Older Adj a comparative of old. Eldest is also used as an adjective, a superlative of old with elder as comparison. Eldest Adj oldest; ...


1

These are equivalent expressions, but the concept is easily understood (at least in the U.S.) and more usually appears as, "the United States (hereafter, U.S.)..."


1

"Was not" is more formal but "wasn't" is acceptable in most spoken registers and many written. I wouldn't use the contraction in scientific writing (the only real formal sort I do). In news or business letters it would be a matter of how formal you were trying to sound. Sometimes the uncontracted form can sound official or even officious. You may or may not ...


1

I would mirror Cindy's answer: she provides two different pieces of information, an arrival day and a departure day, so neither overrides the other; the relative strength of "can" and "will" don't come into it. She does not say whether Monday is when she must depart her current location to reach your location, or when she must depart your location for some ...


1

I'm not sure I understand where the problem is, but if she said she could make it on Saturday, then she meant to be at your place on Saturday. The later statement that she would leave on Monday comes after she has spent some time thinking about the plan, and has decided she has to leave her place on Monday in order to keep the appointment on Saturday, or ...


1

Both can mean the same thing, although "verb- outside the box" is the correct form these days because of the excessive use of the "verb- out of the box" phrase in technology (software/hardware etc.) Latter more likely to mean that the subject succeeds to do the verb immediately after installation/unboxing. Check this link.



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