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21

1.) He died a broken man. 2.) He died as a broken man. * Both are fine, are grammatical, and are standard English usage. In your two examples, the expressions "a broken man" are predicative and are functioning as predicative complements (PC). Here are some related examples: CGEL, page 261, [25]: He died young. The "young" in that example ...


10

None of them are incorrect. English sense verbs, unlike most complement-taking verbs, can take either gerund or infinitive complements. I saw/heard him leave/leaving. This is most common with long-distance senses, of course; -- She smelled him leaving is a fairly unlikely (though not ungrammatical) thing to say. It may be (and undoubtedly some people ...


7

First, note that "x is y" is not always logically equivalent to "y is x". For example, "Fools are my friends" is different from "My friends are fools" (because the first allows wise men to be my friends too, whereas the second does not); "All men are mortals" is very different from "Mortals are all men" :-) That said, sometimes there is an equivalence, and ...


6

The verb allow can be used in three different syntactic constructions indicating what is allowed. Here are the three constructions with examples from the Corpus of Contemporary American English: (a) with a gerund complement indicating what is allowed: allow [gerund phrase] the president last month unveiled plans to allow [drilling in Atlantic waters ...


6

Your analyses of (1) and (2) are both correct. They do indeed refer to the ‘as X as Y (is)’ construction. Your analysis on (3), however, is not quite right. ‘Ever’ when used as an intensifier is confined (as far as I can think of) to three specific circumstances: With comparatives: When used before a comparative adjective, ever intensifies the ...


5

You seem to have confused the to particle used in certain infinitive constructs with to used as a preposition. In English, the phrasal verb confess to takes the -ing form of the verb as its complement, not a bare infinitive as you have used here. He confessed to forging the signature. He confessed to having forged the signature. This acts as the head ...


5

Only the second is correct as written. However, "allows us to acquire", "allows one to acquire", "allows the system to acquire" and so on are all also valid.


5

McCawley doesn't say much about it, as far as I can see, but it appears to be a variety of the complex of serial verb constructions around motion verbs and their inchoatives and causatives, like the various serial verb constructions mentioned in this freshman grammar exam question (#4, restricted to come and go): Bill went and dug some clams. (go and + V) ...


4

In this sentence, to cross the road is an objective predicative complement within the sentence. Such phrases take the general form: SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT + COMPLEMENT The object here is clearly him. Side note As far as I'm aware, the "objective complement" is a rather peculiar construct to the English language. Other European languages (I can vouch ...


4

I must say I always find such terms vague: is it an adjective that functions as a complement, i.e. a complement of an adjectival nature (I am large)? Or a complement to an adjective (I am large of mind)? Some interpret it as the latter; however, most linguistic Google results seem to interpret it as an adjective that is used as a complement, usually a ...


4

The recommend + person + to-infinitive formulation seems to have been more common in the past, while the recommend that + person + subjunctive appears to be gaining currency. Here's an example of the change using the pronoun him and the verb be.


4

It is tempting to see off guard as an adverbial. As such, it would mean ‘My Great Uncle Algie kept trying to catch me in an off guard manner’, but that clearly cannot be. It was neither the aunt nor the manner of catching that was off guard, but the nephew. It follows that off guard is an adjective which postmodifies me.


4

No, the that-clause has no grammatical relationship with the largest. It's quite possible there was previously a larger house in the town (that's just been demolished, perhaps). What the final clause modifies is specifically the word most, but it's complicated by the fact that strictly speaking there's a deleted second instance (the most hospitable and [the ...


4

Leaving out the Toe Suck Fairy, an independently serious Healthy Hyphenation™ problem, the sentence to be accounted for is There was a man known as X. This is a very simple sentence, suitable for beginning stories, displaying two syntactic processes: There-Insertion, which inverts the verb and the original subject, and inserts a dummy there as the new ...


3

Many might see it simply as an Adverbial, or, in functional grammar terms, a Circumstance.


3

Collins Cobuild term verbs such as be, remain, look, and turn link verbs, some of which take an 'adjective complement'. Certainly, Her teeth were etc need some form of completer. A snag is that one can't really sensibly separate syntax and semantics here. Be in this usage is certainly just a placeholder, whilst turn has added semantic content (as well as ...


3

One way of dealing with this structure is to propose something called a small clause, which is effectively a structure encapsulating arguments (e.g. subject, complement) as though there was a verb, but without an actual verb present inside the "clause". The structure crops up 'on the surface' in various cases such as: English: They considered [[him] ...


3

The opposite/complement of digressing is sticking to the intended subject matter. As for the action of getting back to that position after a digression, OP's "To get back on topic,...", or "To return to the subject,..." are perfectly normal. A possible one-word alternative might be... "Refocussing,..."


3

I have to admit that it's the first time I see the use of the verb recommend in this way, i.e. recommend + person + to-infinitive. But if it is registered in a reputable dictionary, it means that this use is accepted. The rephrasing you suggest has the same meaning as the original sentences, in which recommend has two objects, the person (you, me) and the ...


3

I think "she looked it" is more idiomatic. It's equivalent to saying "She was the picture of sorrow" Saying "she looked so" is correct, but a litle unusual. Most readers would be left thinking "she looked so .., what?"


3

A verb agrees with its subject, not its complement, not even in copulas. His injuries that day were the start of his decline. These ideas are a fresh new way of looking at the problem. My parents are the only reason I bother to go home for Christmas anymore.


3

It's a reference to the cut, which featured the Doctor (played by John Hurt) in what could loosely be described as a garden shed. No meaning beyond that, I'm afraid!


2

Some adjectives allow, or even require, a further phrase as part of their meaning. So for example "ready" can be used absolutely, as in "I am ready", but can also take a PP (prepositional phrase), as in "I am ready to go" or "I am ready for anything". Note that "for anything" is not at the sentential level as would be for example the "with" phrase in ...


2

Yes, the two sentences can be reinterpreted in the ways you suggest. The direct object of recommend is that which is recommended, as illustrated in this citation from the OED (Oxford English Dictionary): Most clubs now take a holistic approach to weight loss and are keen to recommend a diet for your individual needs. The person to whom something is ...


2

Resume (“To start (something) again that has been stopped or paused from the point at which it was stopped or paused; continue, carry on”) and return occasionally are so used in phrases in fiction, like “After that digression he resumed...”, or a narrator might say, “To resume our story” or “To return to my point”. Recollect, in sense “To collect (things) ...


2

I think part of your difficulty is that you're trying to make your analysis 'worry' about things that traditional grammar worried about but which aren't really relevant to a modern analysis. Remember that in a modern analysis: you are not constrained to the traditional assumption that every grammatical feature must be overtly present (in other words, you ...


2

I would call white in that case a modicative adjunct, for it describes the state brought about by the verb. That also answers your second question. There are many examples of this pattern, creeping even into formulaic phrases. He stood dumb at the bar. Usually they are employed in descriptions of a literary nature, as in your example. The bones ...


2

An interesting bunch of examples, and correctly grouped. However, the three groups are not monophyletic. Briefly, Group A is an example of what linguists call a "rule conspiracy", where a number of independently motivated processes "conspire" to produce a similar surface structure. Georgia Green discussed them in her paper [Green, Georgia M. (1970) 'How ...


2

I believe the term "subject complement" has gone out of favor. These days, ill would be referred to as a predicate adjective, for more about which see Predicate Adjective explanation in layman's terms. Regardless of whether "subject complement" or "predicate adjective" is the term you use, however, neither ever modifies the verb. The predicate is the ...


2

As Em1 notes in the comments: She is the subject and is necessary. bore is the verb and part of the predicate and is necessary. It's transitive and requires an direct object: them all. So, all you need is: "She bored them all". Stupid is part of the predicate "to bore (so) stupid" but doesn't add any value. Using the classifications noted on Wikipedia, ...



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