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4

A comma is always used before a quotation that is a complete sentence: My father always said, “Be careful what you wish for.” M-W defines quotation as: something that a person says or writes that is repeated or used by someone else in another piece of writing or a speech Perhaps, regarding your example, you are thinking that because the words ...


3

Whether a comma is required depends on the intended meaning. Inserting the comma in "bold, fresh voice" would give 'coordinated' modification, so "voice" is modified by a coordination of adjectives, giving the meaning "voice that is both bold and fresh". By contrast, omitting the comma in "bold fresh voice" would give 'stacked' modification where there are ...


2

Without the comma, four men is restrictive, i.e., defining. The sentence means She asked these four men and not some others. With the comma, four men is nonrestrictive, i.e., supplying extra information. The sentence then means She asked this group, who, by the way, happened to be all men.


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I believe it is a shortening of Smith is lying there being watched patiently by Jones, which makes use of a present passive participle. The participle functions as an adjective modifying Smith. But as Scott mentioned, it could also be a compound predicate — that is, it is a shortened combination of Smith is lying there and Smith is being watched patiently ...


1

The simplest fix is to turn that comma into an em dash. The latter half of the sentence defines the term used in the first part.


1

First of all, it is true that the and in this sentence does not connect clauses, but it is not true that this sentence contains an "and that does not act as a conjunctive in a compound sentence." I went to the nearby cafeteria, and ate quite a lot of food is a compound sentence because it contains two predicates, which are connected by the conjunction ...


1

Very amusing that you punctuated the sentence rightly, while your teacher has made two mistakes. If you are confused as to where to use commas, here is a summary: 1. To separate items, including adjectives that can be reversed in order (sunny, clean beach = clean, sunny beach; while nice little beach ≠ little nice beach) in a list; "I felt devastated, ...


1

Commas are evil if you got them to rules. :) The overall 'master rule' is that comma represent short pauses in speech, designed to split up ideas and help communicate. You are right that your version of the sentence is easier to read; that is justification enough. I would punctuate it the same way. Particularly, the breaks give you moments to pause and ...


1

I don't know if it's a rule in the proscriptive sense, but if I'm unsure I ask myself if I would pause at this point, if yes, a comma is appropriate in this case I suspect it is also required


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What you have are two examples of so-called garden paths, sentences that are arranged to mislead your reader into making the wrong parse. In the first sentence, your reader might expect a third crime instead of a consequence: He was convicted of murder and human trafficking and driving on an expired license. In the second sentence, your reader might ...


1

One certainly can decide for oneself when to use a comma and when not. The problem with Lawler's advice is that commas are a visual tool, not a verbal one. No punctuation is ever verbalized, and when speaking, people often pause where they would never include a comma in writing, and speed through sentences that invite punctuation of various sorts at several ...


1

I would remove the comma after "and" and keep the comma before. The "and" is joining two separate clauses, and in my opinion is necessary: "There is a bird that chirps outside my window, and every morning during the spring, it wakes me before my alarm goes off."


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You'll find that most style guides advise separating an introductory adverbial adjunct from its main clause, but you don't need a preceding comma. Surrounding such a construct with commas may mislead your reader into expecting an aside, as in: There is a bird that chirps outside my window, and horrible to say, it wakes me before my alarm goes off.


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You don't need the comma. In fact, it's better to leave out a comma between a word (here, the gerund funding) and the complement it licenses (here, the infinitive object of the gerund). Alas, understanding punctuation may not help you much with English grammar. Punctuation is a matter of style, and its rules are governed by manuals of style, which not ...


1

Your paragraph correctly punctuated: I find an airplane's symbolic freedom appealing - whether it is soaring through the sky, industriously filling and disgorging passengers(,) or exultantly defying gravity on take-off, it remains independent and far-reaching in all of its manoeuvres. In English, semi-colons are only used as a way to separate linked ...



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