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4

Any expectation of a comma in the examples of the OP has very little to do with the subordinate clauses' restrictiveness, but rather, as the OP suggested, with an interruption of their natural flow. When leading a sentence with a subordinate clause, the comma does not force a "parenthetical / non-restrictive" interpretation. Simply, compare the meaning of ...


3

I think commas are typically placed after closed parentheses and within quotation marks. This creates a dilemma when all three are used together. The idea behind parentheses is they are not part of the sentence, and this is the first thing to bear in mind. If you don't, you are surprised that the verb does not agree with the sense of the whole ...


3

Double commas in this case represent extraneous information, without which, the sentence would still read correctly. You can use this sentence either way, the first just puts more emphasis on the word "therefore"


2

In natural speech, the syntactic pause and corroborating intonation patterns of such imperatives resolve any ambiguity (if context does not). In text, punctuation (a comma, or a dash if the "and" is dropped, which it can be) would attempt to reflect those contours of speech. Don't just sit there, and introduce yourself! Don't just sit ...


2

The primary difference in the forms of the two sentences is that the first one has "eats... reading..." and the second one has "was making... talking..." It thus seems that the first sentence—punctuation aside—can be read only as signifying He always eats breakfast [while] reading the paper. whereas the second sentence—again, ignoring punctuation—can ...


2

In your example, yes, the commas are definitely needed. This sentence is formed of two parts. "Take my aversion to horror films," is functionally separate from the fragment pointing out that it is an example. The commas indicate that separation. You could reword it, "As an example, take my aversion to horror films," which probably shows this separation ...


1

There are two clauses, which can be seen most easily if you strip out prepositional phrases: The desert savanna gave way, and rainfall alone was never adequate. Re-add most prepositional phrases, and it's still two clauses: The desert savanna of the Neolithic Period gave way to increasingly arid conditions, and rainfall alone was never adequate for ...


1

You essentially have two independent clauses here separated by a conjunction. In those cases, a comma is necessary. ("As" can be many parts of speech, but in this case the use is that of a conjunction.) The word "fear" also takes a new meaning, as it comes to represent a more self-centered notion. The electric chair seemed an ironic choice of ...


1

As @FumbleFingers points out, part of the issue with your first example is the asymmetry of your delimiters. "The youngest of us" is the subordinate phrase that should be removable while leaving the sentence intact. That being the case, you should use the same delimiter either side. Do remember that, unlike some languages such as German, English does not ...


1

Using a comma is the correct way. It creates an appositive out of an engineer in training which is being attributed to neildaemond, so neildaemond is now also known as an engineer in training. Using a colon here is technically also correct, but it shouldn't be used in a very short introduction like this. The colon simply says "What comes after me is what ...


1

The first sentence (using a comma rather than a semicolon) is more correct. However, you will see the second semi-often. The issue in this case is that there are other commas in the sentence, not used for clause separation. Many people will sometimes use a semicolon in this case to make it stand out more from the other commas, which are just used for ...


1

Yes, the serial comma style applies to gerunds The serial comma rule is a style for presenting items in a list. It doesn't matter whether those items are nouns, gerund, adjectives, or more complicated terms: I learned to walk, to run, and to twerk. I have seen my best friend skiing, flying, and crashing. I believe in world peace, V-neck sweaters, and ...


1

Your inclination to add a comma to the sentence between hill and and is an instance of wanting to use the comma as a marker for an omitted word or idea. In this case the omitted word is if, since the sentence's internal logic amounts to "if X and if Y, then Z." Such an addition can help with clarity in some cases, or it can be superfluous, depending on the ...


1

Your first example is grammatically incorrect; the second example is correct. Where a parenthetical expression is preceded by a coordinating conjunction, it is correct to surround it by commas, but the coordinating conjunction is included within the commas.


1

In UK English as it was taught some years ago commas and conjunctions were used to divide adjectives - "He was young, dark and hansome". The same rule applied to long numbers - "Ten tousand, seven hundred and twenty-two." The commas are now often omitted and many writers are following US English in omitting the "and" as well.



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