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8

Write what sounds natural. I like changing the verbs and joining with commas: There were many cases of animal suicide in the paper: a duck drowning itself after the death of its companion, a school of dolphins beaching itself for no apparent reason, a deer throwing itself from a cliff to avoid being eaten by hunting dogs. The list went on and on.


4

A comma is either necessary or forbidden, depending on the meaning. For example, here is a context that would require a comma: A previous version of this standard used sender codes, which offered some protection against unauthenticated messages, but were vulnerable to replay attacks if the same sender could send multiple messages. To address this, we ...


3

I've never heard of this distinction, though it may be upheld in some very specialized style guide for court reporters. For general purposes, the advice in Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition (2003) is sensible and sufficiently detailed to cover most situations: 6.53 Comma with quoted material. Quoted material, if brief, is usually introduced by a ...


3

Interesting piece of writing - I was curious as to the writer, so I looked it up, and was surprised to find it was (a translation of) Kandinsky's writing, from On the Spiritual in Art, which I must re-read. Thank you! In answer to your question, Kandinsky is making an analogy between the dull nonresonant sound an old, long-buried, cracked vase would make ...


3

If you consider the cases as a list you can write: Many cases of animal suicide were discussed: a duck drowned itself after the death of its companion, a school of dolphins stranded on a beach with no reason whatsoever, A deer threw itself from a cliff to avoid being eaten by hunting dogs. And the list went on and on.


3

I wouldn't use commas, since each incident listed is in a complete sentence. But you want to group them together to show that it is a list, so semi-colons is the best solution. There were many cases of animal suicide in the paper. A duck drowned itself after the death of its companion; a school of dolphins [was] stranded on a beach with no reason ...


2

If the final clause is to be introduced with an 'and', then they should be separated by commas. Whether you place a comma directly before the 'and' (a usage called the 'serial comma') is sometimes a matter of style, but in this case I would argue that it is necessary (from intuition, I'm not aware of the terminologies and conventions governing this ...


2

That sentence is grammatically correct. This is because if necessary is a subordinate clause, not just another item in your comma-separated list. Keep in mind, if you were to remove that subordinate clause from the sentence, you would not use a comma after the and: To claim a prize, send a Private Message to me stating: which prize you won, your ...


2

Finding the most appropriate places to put commas is usually easier when you trim the sentence down and then slowly add the missing pieces back: For example, someone who just turned 21 and is prone to hurt others, might visit bars more often which would increase his probability of getting arrested for assault. The smallest form of this sentence: ...


2

If you're looking for Something In A Grammar Book, then this would probably fall under the general rule that many recommend of using commas to separate off what we might loosely call "sentence adjuncts" or phrases that, if they were removed, would not greatly affect the meaning of the sentence. Or in other words, it would probably fall under the same ...


1

According to REALTOR® Trademark usage FAQ: The marks should not be used inadvertently and improperly to denote a vocation or business. A good rule to follow is if the term “Member” cannot logically be substituted for the term REALTOR®, then the term should not be used. Appropriate substitutions might include the phrases “real estate broker,” “real estate ...


1

The comma is necessary; without it, the "which" clause changes its meaning to 'that particular Problem (out of several) that describes the issue ...'. You could also put the whole clause in brackets, a parenthesis giving an explanation. [Paraphrasing Edwin Ashworth.] The comma serves to say: "I'm now going to add extra information", such as in the second ...


1

You might think it should be: (It was) a small, but juicy, fruit. It need not be so. But is a conjunction, and when used to join two standalone sentences, you "should" put a comma before it. Drink is the curse of the land. It makes you fight with your neighbor. It makes you shoot at your landlord, but it makes you miss him. Your use of but ...


1

"Until now he has been behaving so badly, that it is about time we do something about it." The expression "that it is about time we do something about it" is a content clause, which is licensed by the modifier "so" and is an indirect complement in the adverb phrase headed by "badly". Usually there is no comma inserted between a head and its complement. ...


1

I wouldn't use a comma in that sentence. Most of the confusion with that comes with defining and none defining relative clauses. We went to the restaurant that serves the best nachos ever. Here that is used to introduce a relative cause and could be replaced with which. The clause defines the restaurant that they went to. In modern English that is ...


1

As you've written it, it doesn't need a comma. But if I was writing it, I'd change the wording a little: Up to now he has been behaving so badly that it's about time we did something about it. That's not to say that there's anything ungrammatical about "until now", but "up to now" is more colloquial. It might be even more colloquial to shift it to the end ...



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