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4

You can use the commas as you suggested. You have misspelled 'two': To describe the flow of to fluids Should be To describe the flow of two fluids.


4

3) is unambiguous, but is more wordy than strictly necessary. 2) is not how you would express this idea. You would never separate a single adjective from its referent(s) with a comma. 1) is the most idiomatic way of conveying your intended meaning. Preceding the entire list with 'new' as you have done implicitly attaches the adjective to each of its ...


4

Like the coordinating conjunction but, the coordinating conjunction yet can coordinate various sorts of things. The difference between them is that yet is even more emphatic when used this way than is but. In short sentences like yours, where the items coordinated are themselves short, a comma would just slow things down: His submission was an unexpected ...


3

No, the comma shouldn’t be used before every if, and or but. This mistake is easy to understand. One should not commit an entire people to using superfluous commas, if only for the reason that it continues to provide us with hilarious examples such as this one.


2

Consulting pp. 211-213 of the full text of Churchill's memoir reveals that his voyage on the Indiaman took place after he had just finished serving in the army in India. "On my homeward steamer", he writes, "I made friends with the most brilliant man in journalism I have ever met". He was in the saloon of the ship and working on a book called ...


2

Punctuation is a rather subjective area - some like lots of it and some prefer a minimalist approach. Answering your first question... I too would put a comma before "and had reached". I would justify it by saying there are two pieces of information, essentially two sentences: "I was working in the saloon of the Indiaman. I had reached an exciting point ...


2

1) The style of the time for punctuation is what is called a "closed" style, meaning just about everything that even feels like a clause will be punctuated as such. (Not as closed as, say, it would have been 100 or more years earlier, but more than we would find acceptable today, perhaps.) That said, a shift in tense would be a still more obvious marker for ...


2

If you retain the existing structure of your text, you should also retain both the first and last commas surrounding "followed by a Master of X [degree]"; this is because it is a parenthetical description that needs to be marked off accordingly. 'Degree' can actually be omitted in both cases. This is because your readers will know from the context that you ...


2

The answer to your question is 'yes'. Clarity should always take precedence over slavish adherence to rules that may or may not have a reasonable justification. (In other words, the precise context should be paramount when deciding on whether a given convention ought to be followed.) However, if you suspect that your readers might object to your usage of ...


2

You are correct that your suggested summary, Experiencing P as well as Q changed D does not require a comma. However, you have two parenthetical statements in your sentence that have been omitted in your summary. The second of these statements comes right before your suggested comma, which may be why it feels natural to put a comma there. Parenthetical ...


2

You should not put a comma there. The meaning of your sentence is clear, but it would sound more natural to say something like: My interest in science encourages me to do that even more. However, depending on what has gone before, this is probably better than that. It is hard to say unless we know more about what you have written before this sentence.


1

A pair of commas used as in your query sentence acts like opening and closing parentheses: they mark off an observation or comment which is incidental to the main idea of the sentence. In fact, you can test the necessity of having both commas by temporarily substituting a pair of parentheses for those commas to see if the resulting sentence is still ...


1

Purdue's OWL on comma usage. Point three seems relevant here: Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Use one comma before to indicate the beginning of the pause and one at the end to indicate the end of the pause. Here are some clues to ...


1

A comma is not needed, but the sentence should say "during January and February. There are no days "between" January and February.


1

Do you need to include all that detail in your text? My guess is that with that first sentence, if there is a need to include the exact day, you don't also need to include the year. So if I were writing it I would say either 'the 22 December meeting', or 'the December 2014 meeting'. Clearly if I am giving this information as late as November 2014, I would ...


1

Yes. It's an example of parenthetical comma. If we instead use parentheses as in: I was home-schooled in middle school (if that counts). Then, there's a heavier sense of break and separation, but the meaning is close. The parenthetical use gets hidden slightly, because we don't have a closing comma just before the period, which is to say it's ...


1

Both sentences are grammatical; how you express this depends on whether the combination or the journey is more important and what 'tone of voice' you want to use. The paratactic version puts more emphasis on the journey, because it falls at the end: the journey is felt to be the outcome toward which the combination moves you. The participle version puts ...


1

The word category of ordinal numbers such as first is somewhat contentious. However, they behaves pretty much exactly like adjectives - which is what they probably are. Consider the Original Poster's example: Reading was very important to John's parents, both of them firsts in their families to go to college. Here we see first occurring without a ...


1

Among your choices are ... is, for Scanlon, its unjustifiability or .... what establishes, for Scanlon, whether something is wrong ... I'd use the former if the term "unjustifiability" is a term Scanlon uses frequently, and you are going on to discuss the term.



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