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People who enjoy good health and whose children score As (0r A's) in school are very happy. The expression "enjoy good health" is idiomatic, and by shifting its position next to the subject, people, there is no ambiguity. The conjugation and expresses that people who possess both qualities are "happy". Instead the following phrase People whose ...
Oxford comma. Use a comma before the and, and there: separate clauses, no ambiguity (to a reader who understands the significance of a dummy comma.) "… score A's in school, and have good health … " It may also help to drop the second have: "school, and good health"
How about: People of good health who have children who score A's in school are very happy. or People with good health having children who score A's in school are very happy.
There is only one logical transformation of the sentence: The client sent me letter in which he asked if ... Normally only persons ask questions, letters are no persons and ask no qestions.
Where to go is the question. I would change to normal word order: The question is where to go. And I would say the subject is "the question" and "where to go" the complement to the verb form "is" (linking verb to be +complement). "where to go" has of course the sense of "where one/we should go". The question may arise how such a shortened question with ...
Re the second question "Why go when you can stay?" I would parse "why go" as an independent interrogative clause, and would understand it in one of two ways, depending upon whether it was a direct address (you) or a general question about people and the choices available to them that happened to use "you" to mean "one". YOU Why (do you opt to) go, when ...
It is an example of a [reduced] absolute phrase. The following from grammar.ccc.com: ABSOLUTE PHRASE Usually (but not always, as we shall see), an absolute phrase (also called a nominative absolute) is a group of words consisting of a noun or pronoun and a participle as well as any related modifiers. Absolute phrases do not directly ...
It is a participle phrase, with the verb implied. The sentence could be written He ran over to me, his delight [being] evident, and hugged me already. The phrase is used adjectivally to modify the pronoun He. It is very common to omit the participle being when the phrase includes both a noun (such as delight) and predicate adjective (such as evident). ...
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