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5

One word is cataphora. Since the noun no longer precedes the pronoun that refers to it, that noun can be called a postcedent. Here's a bit from the wiki article on cataphora: In linguistics, cataphora ... is used to first insert an expression or word that co-refers with a later expression in the discourse.[1] example of strict, sentence-internal ...


3

''If he had any sense, he would do this.'' Leave your opinion of the subjects smartness implied. It works even better in the past tense; ''If he had any sense, he would have done this.''


2

I don't understand why you want to use find instead of think or believe. If you're stressing your finding, you shouldn't put it in a non-restrictive relative clause. Relative clauses of any kind are for backgrounded presupposed material, not important matters. Think or believe -- besides meaning the same thing -- have the advantage that they can both take ...


2

Your original sentence doesn't sound awkward or clumsy to me. The relative clause “which I don't find/consider him (to be)” is perfectly normal and common. It is somewhat formal in register, but that's not because of the relative clause-ness of it—the construction find/consider X to be Y is just a bit above normal, colloquial speech in register. The more ...


2

It sounds like what you mean is If he were smart, he would do this, but I fear he is not. or If he were smart, which I fear he is not, he would do this.


2

I’m afraid that identifying types of clauses is much like identifying parts of speech. It depends who’s doing the analysis and what purpose they plan to put that to just which ones you get. Once you split between dependent and independent clauses, or clauses that stand in for another part of speech like noun, adjective, or adverb, the entire thing becomes ...


1

Your argument is ingenious, but unfortunately doesn't work: language isn't always as logical as we might like to think. First, you're right that who is good can be a noun phrase, but it doesn't follow that it can necessarily be used as the subject or a verb. In fact, for reasons that are not clear to me, what is good and whoever is good are grammatical as ...


1

As others have said, in both cases, b) is normal and a) is not. 1a) is grammatical, but unusual. By moving John before the verb, it makes John the subject of the relative clause: it would only be used if we expected the hearer to know John and so we were identifying Isobel with reference to him. Even then it is awkward, and we'd be much more likely to say ...


1

To say "independent clause" is to say "simple sentence". A clause that stands by itself is a main clause. There are many different things one can do to a main clause, but normally independent utterances are classified by pragmatic function: statements (declarative) He closed the door. questions (interrogative) Did he close the door? orders (imperative) ...


1

Since an independent clause is a simple sentence, the answer you seek would basically be a list of possible subject structures combined with a list of possible predicate structures1. These lists have not been commonly combined, but studied and categorized separately. 1Wikipedia does not include a link to Carlson's full 1977 paper. Here is one.



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