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The paragraph is written in the present progressive with an implied subject [I] and implied helping verb [am]. [I am] Running through the hallways.... This is not standard English, but it functions similarly to an imperative [You] Leave the room. The listener or reader supplies the missing, but obvious, words. A fair amount of recent fiction is written in ...


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I would see the mentioned cases of missing subjects as simple ellipsis. Imperative - the "you" is understood as self-evident. Why look that way? - Shortening of Why should we look that way? A series of participle constructions: Put "I was" or "Imagine me" at the beginning of the sentence and it is complete. Ellipsis (omission) is not an invention of ...


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The teacher is mistaken, though they are equivalent in your first two sample sentences. "I can't see you -- are you here?" is grammatical, but "I can't see you, are you here?" is a comma splice. "What the --" isn't a complete phrase, but it's acceptable in dialog. "What the," would not be. Similarly, "What the -- oh, there you are" would be acceptable in ...


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You have a compound infinitive describing your job: "to extract and to calculate." You also have a predicate complement "lethal" in the relative clause "that could be lethal." You have to decide whether leaving out the comma will momentarily mislead your reader into thinking that the complement might turn out to be compound, as in "that could be lethal ...



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