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21

Help is a special verb in that way - the to is usually dropped from an infinitive when it is modifying help. This form of infinitive is called the bare infinitive: The bare infinitive is used as the main verb after the dummy auxiliary verb do, or most modal auxiliary verbs (such as will, can, or should). So, "I will/do/can/etc. see it." Several ...


14

The reality of the language is such that both forms are used, on both sides of the Atlantic, but the bare-infinitive form is clearly preferred, as the stats from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) and the British National Corpus (BNC) illustrate: COCA BNC all you have to do is [inf] 842 72 all ...


13

The particle "to" is not wrong in this sentence, but it is unnecessary. I would recommend against using it. The phrase "to understand" can be interpreted as a special case of the infinitive; a kind of future infinitive or impersonal future tense. In that context, the first sentence means, essentially, "please help me develop an understanding of this (in the ...


10

Your friend is correct. "I need compute ..." is ungrammatical, but "I need only compute ..." is fine, if a little bit old-fashioned and formal. Modal verbs do not use a "to". That is, you say I can do this. The verb "need" is a funny case; it is only modal in the negative. In the positive, we already have an equivalent modal verb; namely, "I must". ...


10

Quirk et al is a good grammar but weak, I think, on complex sentences. What we're looking at in all of these examples is the remains of deceased clauses. Of the four sentences, two: I saw her leave the room I heard someone shouting are examples of special constructions that are limited to sense verbs, one with an infinitive and the other with a ...


8

The plain form of the verb is preceded by the particle to in most instances where it follows another verb, so we would have to say, for example, Encouraging you to master Russian and not *Encouraging you master Russian. After the verb help, however, to is optional, and after some other verbs it is even disallowed. We cannot say *Making you to master Russian ...


8

The verb go can take a bare infinitive following. So can come. (Edit: And sometimes, so can run.) Examples: You can go get your hair cut or come get your supper, you can go see a movie or come see what I’ve got, you can go wash you car or come wash your hands, and you can go plow the field or come milk the cows with me. Or you can just plain go hang. This ...


8

EDIT: Added modals including quasi-modals; added examples and exceptions; note that these lists are only “complete” for the modals and quasi-modals. That’s because make does not take a to-infinitive. It takes a bare infinitive, without the to particle. Not all infinitives have a to attached to them. You really have to learn the sort of complement each ...


8

The OED provides for no such usage. Adapting the examples: 1) Tend can be used with to/towards. Walter tended to run. or Walter tended towards corpulence. or ... tends towards infinity. 2) Tend can be used with an adverbial: fire is hot and tends upwards No dictionary seems to provide for a usage like: ... tend be ... ...


7

EDIT FOLLOWING A MORE ATTENTIVE READING OF THE QUESTION The short answer is ‘No’ A marked infinitive is obligatory, as may be seen from counter-examples: ✲What we plan is take the train to New York. ✲Caesar’s objective was break the power of the Druids. The question then becomes, Why is the bare infinitive acceptable in your two examples? I note ...


7

Try replacing have to with must... 2: What you must do is read a lot. Not only does the first to disappear; the possibility of including a second one vanishes too. I think it's easier if we assume these sentences are "cut down" versions of the [hypothetical]... 1a: All you have to do is you have to read a lot. 2a: What you must do is you must ...


7

In this case make is not the causative, which as you say takes an infinitive marked with to. We are not causing 'it' to work. Instead, make is employed in the idiom make it to [a place]: Make it means, approximately, succeed at or achieve success. To is the ordinary preposition. Work is not a verb but a noun, the object of the preposition: our job, the ...


6

There's something missing from the description of the problem, which is the omission of the word only. I grant that it is an archaic construction, but I do not concede it is incorrect. 1.  In this setting, we need only consider X. We could equivalently say 2.  In this setting, we only need to consider X. I agree that the ...


6

Both are grammatically correct. The first is the one I'd use and is the idiomatic one. The second sounds fine and there's nothing wrong with it, but only less idiomatic and that's why you don't see it in your written materials. In addition to that, the to in there is unnecessary and doesn't really add anything to the overall meaning of the sentence. Most ...


5

The incorrect sentence is: Let me to go. You're hurting me. It should be: Let me go. Let takes a bare infinitive (i.e. no "to"). The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary has more details and examples.


5

No, not in the same way, but then need and dare are both a little different, anyway. Need and dare have several peculiarities: They take infinitive complements, like many other verbs, in the affirmative and negative He wanted to read it. He didn't want to read it. She needs to see them. She doesn't need to see them. He dared to contradict them. He didn't ...


5

It can be omitted, but there is no should about it.


5

In addition to badroit's excellent answer: Tend be is unplottable on an NGRAM. If you are unfamiliar with its use, an NGRAM is a search for a word form or string within an entire corpus of literature which can compare its relative prevalence (statistical probability of occurrence). When asking a question of this type, plotting an NGRAM can often help ...


4

“I saw him kick the stone” is the correct form, not “kicked”. That's because it's not the present tense, but the infinitive (one particular example of that is that it's not “kicks”, but “kick”).


4

The technical reason is that the object complement clause of We watched, viz. (for) Obama (to) speak is an Infinitive object complement and, since infinitives are tenseless, it can't take a past tense form like spoke. Sense verbs like see, watch, listen, etc. often use infinitive complements without the infinitive complementizer to.


4

The second verb here is the bare infinitive. Edit: a participle could also be used, i.e we watched Obama speaking. The difference in meaning would be aspectual. The first implies that his speaking was a single event (which was watched in full) The second implies that it was a process (which may or may not have been watched in full).


4

In the original sentence, We have had two other ladies express an interest in the room. the perfect construction, and the nature of the particular noun phrases and complement in the sentence are all irrelevant to the grammar. Let's start with a simple sentence without all the bells and whistles and see what's what. There is an idiom with have plus ...


4

It's not typical. The American Heritage Dictionary entry for ought has the following usage note: Unlike other auxiliary verbs, ought usually takes to with its accompanying verb: We ought to go. Sometimes the accompanying verb is dropped if the meaning is clear: Should we begin soon? Yes, we ought to. In questions and negative sentences, especially ...


4

English definitely requires an "and" between imperatives, except in certain cases. The phrase "Go [imperative]" is somewhat idiomatic, which is why "Go fuck yourself" or "Go have fun" are perfectly grammatical. However, no other verbs that behave this way are coming to mind. In most other situations, the 'and' is obligatory. For example, "Sit and eat your ...


3

"Helping you to master Spanish." is the grammatically complete and correct way to write it. However, "Helping you master Spanish." is also correct - the to can be omitted as it is understood. This is permitted by grammar.


3

The particle to is what's called a Complementizer. It marks the verb following as an Infinitive (in English, that's necessary because English infinitive verb forms are identical with the present tense forms -- to go, I go; to sit, I sit, except for the single verb be (I am, to be). More on infinitive complements here To is not a part of the verb that ...


3

You might see the infinitive is the form of the verb that has most of the following features: it is the form that does not carry any of the inflections that essentially any "productive" verb can carry that restrict the interpretation of that verb; it is the form that can be the complement of a modal auxiliary; it is the form that may be specified by a ...


3

The infinitive is the basic or root verb form, uninflected. For example, in "to work" the infinitive is "work": We didn't come here to have fun, we came here to work. Other forms are derived from the infinitive: I worked. He works. You'll usually find me working. And so on.



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