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The verb “happen” can not take a direct object, and it therefore has no passive form, so there is no “is/was/be happened” tense. There are a number of English verbs like this: occur, arise, and exist are some others. Here’s a link with a short discussion.


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In English, we prefer to negate the verb think rather than to use a negative in the content clause which represents the actual thought involved. This is also true with verbs like want and believe. So we prefer: I don't think she's here to I think she isn't here. And we prefer: I don't want to eat it to I want to not eat it. I think that the ...


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It is an issue of saying, thinking and saying what is being thought! When you think, you think 'there couldn't be trains today because of the strike'. When you say (what you think), you would say, '(I think) there wouldn't be trains today because of the strike'.


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She HAS gone to the market She is gone. (to mean, she left, she's away). You can also use idioms like "what is gone and what is not...".... that is often used in literature.


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I find all versions ending "...undergraduate student give" awkward and distracting. Of the options so far on offer I prefer "His presentation on [...] was one of the best presentations I have known an undergraduate student to give." But the most natural for me is His presentation on [...] was one of the best I have known given by an undergraduate ...


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It's perfectly natural to say either: His presentation on [...] was one of the best presentations I have seen an undergraduate student give. or His presentation on [...] was one of the best presentations I have known an undergraduate student to give. I suspect the author/speaker simply changed their mind or lost track of which construction they ...


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The use of have seen is fine; it's the to give at the end of the sentence that's off. It should read: I have seen an undergraduate student give.


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The first one is spot on. The second would be more usual with the did immediately after the subject. Let's consider do-support a bit more generally. There are some constructs in English that we can only do with an auxiliary verb. For example we put "not" after it to make it negative: I have not got it. You are not happy. We can't do this with ...



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