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16

Interesting question! Actually, I would interpret your example sentences in almost all contexts as meaning your first scenario. To describe your second scenario, I do not believe we normally describe that someone almost or nearly did something, but rather, we play around with modal verbs: He would have drowned yesterday. (But he decided to stay home.) ...


4

In your first case, the victim (did) nearly, almost, and was close to drowning. In your second case, the person escaped, avoided, and missed drowning. They are fundamentally different situations. The adverbs are going to be different. He nearly drowned (adverb) is different than he might have drowned (modal).


4

He is charged with murder. Here with murder should be classed as complement. The reason is that the preposition with seems to depend on the verb. Compare this with: charged on Monday charged at 11am charged by the police Here the different prepositional phrases we observe can occur freely with a wide range of sentences. There is no sense in which ...


4

I don’t know what you mean by “a proper adverb”. On Dictionaries and Software If you are concerned that it may not be found in this or that dictionary, this means nothing, since derived forms that are generated by productive derivational morphology are never fully enumerated in any dictionary. The absence of a word from a dictionary never proves anything ...


4

Close is a perfectly fine adverb. It works especially well with verbs involving position or motion. Per the OED: In (or into) a position in which the intervening space is closed up, so that there is no interval; in immediate contact or proximity; as near as can be, very near. Esp. with stand, sit, lie, stick, cling, keep, hold, press, etc., or with ...


3

First a caveat: you cannot always reliably test what function a certain word or phrase has by replacing it with some other word or phrase. However, normal adverbs serve the same function as many prepositional phrases do, so what you said about how it can replace in Paris supports treating there as an adverb. A preposition occurs before a nominal phrase, ...


3

It is true that ODO's entry is not particularly helpful. OED has a discrete entry for just this case, though: A. adv. 1. c. Placed after the name of a person or thing to whose presence attention is called: = Who or which is here, whom you see here. Parts of speech, particularly of ancient words like this which have many uses all slightly different, ...


3

In the example you have given, maximum would be the right word: Use underflow to set the maximum possible value of the data type used. Maximally is usually found as an adverb that modifies an adjective, such as maximally efficient.


2

You could, but you probably should not. There's certainly a meaning of the word so that matches perfectly. But is it the meaning that immediately and clearly comes to mind? I don't think so, and I strongly suspect that this is not just my reading of it, but would be common to other readers too. As such, you could argue that your use was correct, but what's ...


2

It is perfectly correct usage, however not the most common use of but. Per the Free Dictionary, To the contrary: to the opposite effect from what has been stated or what is expected; contrary to expectations. But: contrary to expectation; yet. In your example, let's reword. Most people think Pat will fail, (but/to the contrary) who knows? I think that ...


2

There is a condition called 'near drowning' "Near drowning" means a person almost died from not being able to breathe (suffocating) under water. So, in your examples, one was a victim of near drowning, the other wasn't!


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It is difficult to answer this question directly since it asks whether "here" in the example sentence is an adverb or an adjective. As tchrist remarks, this word does not easily fit into either category. If, however, one rephrases this question in more general terms, it suddenly becomes a very worthwhile topic of reflection. Consider it phrased this way: ...


2

As is well-recognised by linguists, dictionaries are not a good place to start when trying to establish parts of speech. A good reference grammar is. Of the three great grammars of the English language from the last hundred years, the most recent and up-to-date is The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, Huddleston and Pullum, 2002. It says the ...


2

mustn't as in must not if "Forbidden" or "disallowed" are too strong in this sense mustn't must surely be okay... "mandatory to not have any errors in your exam" --> "your exam mustn't contain any errors" "mandatory to not read foreign words in the book." --> "you mustn't read foreign words in the book."


2

Forbidden or prohibited could both be an appropriate counter to 'mandatory'. For a milder sense, you could use 'discouraged' in the sense that you'd be 'making clear disapproval of' something, without any significant enforcement.


2

With all due respect to @tchrist, it is routinely possible for adjectives to serve as complements for verbs, without their needing to become or be construed as adverbs. I was once challenged by a copy-editor for the sentence “If we each live solitary, therefore, some of our needs go unmet.” He or she wanted me to substitute ...


1

How was the house built? quickly as if by magic in a workmanlike manner with indoor plumbing with love by machine by hand by elves by Sam As @Edwin Ashworth indicates in his comment, the categorizations of adverbial types is a bit restrictive. The grouping manner is a catchall for a wide range of characteristics.


1

Confusingly, if you say "A and B are administered sequentially" It DOES NOT necessarily mean A THEN B. It just means the listed items in that set are sequential, not concurrent. You should say "A and B are administered sequentially, with A before B." The other is "A and B are administered concurrently." (It's very surprising you don't know this if in ...


1

The word quite describes the degree of intensity to which the adjective modifies the noun. If I say that something is quite big, then it should be understood to mean that the thing is bigger than many things but not as big as it could be. It might be less common to discuss varying degrees of purple, but I don't think I would call it ungrammatical to do so. I ...


1

The word you are looking for is auditory.


1

"Force kill" is idiomatic/jargon. It is not technically gramatically correct, but has become so by dint of repeated use. It would not be correct outside of the specific usage in computer science ("kill" as an act committed against a living being would require "forcibly").


1

The first example is an adverb, in that it means completely or entirely. The second example is a determiner, in that it refers to a quantity of a given thing, in this case 'his income'. They both end up meaning the same thing, they just arrive there in different ways. There's almost always more than one way to skin a cat in English.


1

Do you not want to say which drug is given first a) because you don't know, b) because it doesn't matter, or c) because it's a test question that you want the reader to answer? If a) you don't know, why are you saying it at all? If b) it doesn't matter, just say so: "A and B can be given either simultaneously or in sequence; the order in which they are ...


1

All around can be an adverb; or rather, an adverb (around) modified by another adverb (all). In this case, though, around is not an adverb, but a preposition, and it is its object. There is a difference between saying all around (meaning ‘everywhere’) and all around [object] (meaning ‘surrounding [object] on all sides’). You could move things around in ...



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