14
votes
0answers
724 views

Graphotactics of possessive: the true reason for the apostrophe

I have some hypotheses for English graphotactics: 〈w〉 and 〈y〉 are optional positional variants (i.e. allographs) of 〈u〉 and 〈i〉, respectively, in digraphs that correspond with diphthongs or vowels: ...
10
votes
0answers
732 views

Dictionary of English constructions

There is a family of grammars called construction grammar that started perhaps in the 80s with the work of Fillmore & Kay among others. Examples of constructions include: the time + away ...
5
votes
0answers
60 views

On the origin of 'blizzard '.

Blizzard is probably the most used word to indicate a violent snowstorm. Despite its popularity the etymology of the term is quite unclear. Some well-known sources hint at its onomatopoeic sound as ...
1
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0answers
41 views

Who was “Toody Hotpot”?

My late mother (born in the 1920s in London, where she lived all her life) was fond of saying of anyone who wasn't helping in any particular job or activity that they were "Just standing around, like ...
1
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0answers
43 views

Is there more monosyllabic lexis in the English Language than polysyllabic lexis?

In terms of words in the actual dictionary are there more monosyllabic words or more polysyllabic words?
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Usage of “will” after the when clause

Which of these sentences is correct / better / more appropriate for the formal style? This is the same as the probability that when taking out two balls, we get the same color twice. This is ...
1
vote
0answers
49 views

Comma, dash or colon to introduce a person's name at end of sentence?

Without recasting, which is the best form to use to introduce the individual at the end of the sentence? Should it be a comma, an em dash or a colon? Are all correct, and what is your preference? (1) ...
1
vote
0answers
78 views

Terms for “natural gender” and “grammatical gender”

This post is partly inspired by previous posts, such as this one, on non-existence of grammatical gender in English. My question is mainly about what "natural gender" and "grammatical gender" are to ...
1
vote
0answers
75 views

How would I punctuate the phrase “making that which needs to be better better”? Is this phrase grammatically correct?

How would I punctuate the phrase "making that which needs to be better better"? I'm guessing that the phrase is grammatically correct, and that the punctuation is as follows, along with an example ...
1
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0answers
42 views

The word “mine”: Anyone else use a velar nasal /maiŋ/ for “belongs to me” meaning, but still /main/ for “explosive”/“coal mine”?

I think I naturally distinguish these words: mine (ie "belongs to me") /maiŋ/ mine (ie "explosive" or "coal mine") /main/ I vaguely remember noticing this years ago, but I was only just reminded of ...
1
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0answers
81 views

One-word synonym - 'the following' (ie: what follows next)

Please beware that I ask only about definition 2, so I'm seeking a nounal synonym for the following = [treated as singular or plural] What follows or comes next: Particularly, is there an ...
1
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0answers
48 views

uses of since and for in perfect continuous tense

in how many way we can specify time duration for for in perfect continuous tense. i found lot example but i need exact figures, because i have apply condition in a dictionary checking program I have ...
1
vote
0answers
57 views

Is there any other category besides prose and verse, for classification of literature according to format?

Prose and verse are two ways of classifying types of literature, is there a third category for the classification of literature according to format? For example, in which category a graphic ...
1
vote
0answers
61 views

Descry, Espy, Spot, Spy

I know as a general rule that no two words are identical in meaning and use. I was wondering if I could get help in understanding the different meanings and uses of descry, espy, spot and spy. I know ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

comma/comma-splice in “inexpensive, but effective, resources”?

"inexpensive, but effective, resources" Is comma needed in the above? It is clear, X destroys homes, businesses. Can comma splices be used instead of "that" and "and" in above?
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Parallel Structure: negative comparative

Consider the following sentence: "Frank will not be honored for dedicating his time to orphans, as Fred will not be honored for devoting his life to the poor." A better way to phrase this might be: ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

already , southern pronunciation ≈ [ʰɑɾi] “oddy”

Cut to the chase pals Could anybody confirm the southern pronunciation of "already" as something like oddy ? if so, What's its phonetic transcription? is there any eye spelling for it? I've noticed ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Is there a difference between articles and determiners?

I have heard the, a, and an referred to as both articles and determiners. Do these two terms mean the same thing, or are there some differences between them? Can a word be an article but not a ...
1
vote
0answers
64 views

Affricate variations in English: t͡s d͡z?

the T between vowels change to t͡s in some english speakers? Usually when I heard "What's, that's" or similar constructions, where the T come with S, I always consider like a t͡s, so I really don't ...
1
vote
0answers
72 views

Looking for an Equivalent to the AWL for Academic Idioms

Coxhead developed and evaluated something called the "Academic Word List" for English Language Learners. This is a list of (supposedly) the most common "academic" terms to be used by students from ...
1
vote
0answers
65 views

Is there a fraction prefix for “(one-)third”?

I am a mathematician, working with things called 1⁄k-regular polytopes, dubbed thus by Conway. For the case of k = 2, as in ½-regular, it is naturally pronounced and written half-regular. However, I ...
1
vote
0answers
64 views

Definite article before an abstract noun

When is the definite article the appropriate before an abstract noun? In particular, I have the following examples. Which are correct? Case I In the Theorem 4.4, we prove property A for all ...
1
vote
0answers
38 views

Is a relative clause always a permission for “the” article to be used before its antecedent?

I have noticed that most often a relative pronoun such as who, which, etc. is used to further inform the reader about its preceding noun or noun phrase, e.g. 1-Do you know the girl who is ...
1
vote
0answers
62 views

both “will” “would” in one sentence

From a BBC article: The rise comes as Russia said it would will resume shipments of natural gas to Ukraine after Kiev makes its first payment for previous supplies next week. Would and will both ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

How should author-names of work-by-multiple-authors be ordered in APA reference?

In APA reference, how should the names of the authors of a work-by-multiple-authors be listed? Alphabetically, in the order as they appear/are listed chronologically in the article, or what? ...
1
vote
0answers
54 views

What are the terms for same meaning phrases that only differ in having a preposition?

I don't know sentence structure terminology much, however, provided with these two sample phrases, that mean the same thing. Refrigeration of Food Food Refrigeration My questions are, in the ...
1
vote
0answers
140 views

present simple plus past simple in the if-clause

Please help me understand whether I can use the past simple tense with the present simple tense in one if-clause. My example is the question that I want to ask when speaking with English native ...
1
vote
0answers
60 views

Using the subjunctive without “that”

One purpose of that is to “express a wish or regret.” Even so, can that be removed from the following sentence and still leave it OK? It is crucial that you be there before Tom arrives.
1
vote
0answers
131 views

Past perfect example confusion

My text definition of past perfect tense tells me that it is used to refer to an action that is completed at some point in the past and before the commencement of another past action. I came across ...
1
vote
0answers
75 views

word order of here + adverb + noun, e.g. here used method

I have been encountering several examples (in scientific papers), where people used constructions like "the here used method", "the here investigated case", etc.. I have been thinking that it is ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

“b'ile over” seemingly incorrect spelling?

"There's no pleasin' her, nohow, no matter how you try! I wouldn't stay if 'twa'n't for the wages and the folks at home what's needin' 'em. But some day--some day I shall jest b'ile over; and ...
1
vote
0answers
488 views

How many “monophthongs” are there in RP? Do all the varieties of spoken English in the UK have the same number?

A monophthong is a pure vowel sound. The monophthongs can be contrasted with diphthongs, where the vowel quality changes within the same syllable, and hiatus, where two vowels are next to each ...
1
vote
0answers
88 views

What are the grammatical phrases in this sentence?

I'm analyzing this sentence and scanning it for prepositional, appositive and verbal phrases. In the sentence so far as I can tell there is only one prepositional and no appositive and no verbals ...
1
vote
0answers
63 views

Detection of dangling modifier

Sentence that needs correction : "For building vocabulary skills, students should try to speak and write new words in appropriate contexts, rather than merely memorizing definitions". How is ...
1
vote
0answers
71 views

“Somewhere” - is it really a pronoun?

Is it? If it is then why is not listed in the major dictionaries? LDOCE, Dictionary.com, Merriam-Webster: No
1
vote
0answers
123 views

What's the meaning of the word “spitters” in The Chemical Worker's Song?

Amongst the different versions of this song (Known by various names including "The Chemical Worker's Song", "Process Man" and "The ICI Song") that are floating around, there seem to be two variations ...
1
vote
0answers
154 views

The antonym of Schadenfreude is “fribbly” - the joy in other people's joy. What is the origin of this new meaning?

For many years the word fribbly has been used, in various communities as the antonym of Schadenfreude. Rather than harm-joy or "pleasure derived from the misfortunes of others". Fribbly is "Joy-Joy" ...
1
vote
0answers
196 views

Diagramming Sentences with Causative Verbs and Predicate Adjectives

So I was recently relearning how to diagram sentences, but I ran across a sentence that had a causative verb and a predicate adjective and I had no idea how to diagram it. This is my best guess, but ...
1
vote
0answers
294 views

Subject/Complement Agreement. How to describe problem with “The thing is the objects.”

In my ell answer, version 32, I provided the following, problematic, wording (especially bold italic), and I need help to better understand this issue so I can fix my answer:1 The thing is ...
1
vote
0answers
107 views

spread of the quotative “be like” outside North America

I thought that the quotative "be like" was limited to American English, but was surprised to hear a 60-something New Zealand woman using it repeatedly recently. What is the status in world English? ...
1
vote
0answers
160 views

When is it appropriate to use a comma before “which”, “with”, and “who”?

Is it appropriate to use a comma before which in the following sentence? The group has helped me to make new friends and become more independent, which has increased my self-confidence. Is it ...
1
vote
0answers
67 views

Cohesive devices

Hi I'm analysing an old advertisement at the moment. Below's a picture of it, I'm stumped on one thing. Can someone tell me if the pronouns 'you' and 'your' are anaphoric references or exophoric ...
1
vote
0answers
231 views

punctuating So and Then at the beginning of a sentence

I am confused when to put a comma after "so" and after "then" at the start of a sentence. i.e., And then that's when you went to the store? i.e., Then at McDonald's you were only there for a year, ...
1
vote
0answers
123 views

Do I so often encounter simple past for past participle (e.g., “I have went,” “what was did to her”) because of where I am or when?

Since moving to small-town northern Minnesota (USA) two dozen years back to teach English, I have noticed a lot of instances in spoken language where the simple past is used in lieu of the past ...
1
vote
0answers
112 views

Why do the first and last “t” in “taste” sound different?

When I listened to the audio pronunciation of "taste" /teɪst/, I noticed that the first and last "t" sound different: the first "t" sounds like [tʰ] while the second one sounds more like [tsʰ]. Words ...
1
vote
0answers
69 views

Difference between discursive construction and discursive representation

Are there any good definitions of the concepts of "discursive representation" and "discursive construction" which highlights the difference and/or relationship between these? I'm thinking about ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

How to express “prefer in order”

Let say, I am a little boy and my mother had several fruits (orange, apple, banana,...) and she asked me which one which I like, but she was not sure if she could give me that fruit ( I don't know why ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Can threshold implies minimum requirement in formal essay?

Can threshold implies minimum requirement in formal essay? Thank you very much!
0
votes
0answers
12 views

“I was…and I was…” and/or “I was…and was…”?

Take for example the two sentences: "I was at the park and I was wondering about the future." "I was at the park and was wondering about the future." I hear the two being used interchangeably in ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Does the punctuation work in these specified ranges?

As a matter of style, could these pass muster to you in terms of conciseness and punctuation - yes or no? I think they are clear and uncluttered. 5-10 year olds 5-10 year old prodigies 10-15 year ...

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