Questions about determining the subject of a sentence or clause

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Subject of 'asking' in: 'sent a letter asking'

In the sentence ... The client sent me a letter asking if we could change the information for them. ... what is the semantic/syntactic subject of the verb asking? Are there any tests we can do ...
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Clause and noun as subject in a sentence

Can I use both a clause and a noun as the subject of a sentence? For example: How the factors interact and their compound impact are not well understood. I find the meaning is clear but the ...
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Noun adjuncts and modifying phrases

Noun adjuncts are nouns acting like adjectives, such as "animal" in "Animal Farm." And some words, for example, "privileges of rank" is the same as "rank privileges." But I am confused when 'the' is ...