Questions about the present-participle form of verbs.

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Present Participle or Past Continuous?

A decade ago, nearly a million and a half elephants were living in Africa. Does the word'living' act as a present participle or verb of past continous Please explain it to me.
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1answer
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“Before/ while/ after ordering a taxi…” are these identical constructions?

"Before ordering a taxi...", and "After ordering a taxi..."; the noun-verb follows a preposition and is a gerund. "Waiting for a taxi, patience is needed." Or "Waiting for a taxi, I dropped my ...
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1answer
59 views

Use of Present Participle

I am trying to understand how to interpret the meaning of the following sentence, John arrived late to the airport, causing him to miss his flight I know that the present participle modifies the ...
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1answer
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“Changes taking place” vs. “changes that take place”

I proofread quite often and most of the time recognize lots of mistakes, but from time to time I see this usage of the present participle and it always makes me wonder what rules should I apply to see ...
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1answer
48 views

In + pres. participle constructions (“In performing,” “in using”)

I'm working on preparing some text for translation into Spanish and have come across this construction, which sounds perfectly fine to me, but I've been unable to find any definition or description ...
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0answers
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when encountering vs when you encounter

In the discussion of Question (2), remind students not to be too worried when encountering sexual health problems. Should I change it to In the discussion of Question (2), remind students not to ...
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0answers
76 views

Is it correct to say “X is a Y, doing Z”?

Not sure how to best put this in words, but I'll give an example below. This is from a boilerplate text of a company: ABC is a manufacturing company, partnering with DEF to... I would be ...