Questions about past participle forms of verbs.

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18
votes
5answers
60k views

“Spelt” vs. “spelled”

In the following sentence, should I say spelled or spelt: You spelt/spelled "Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis" wrong.
5
votes
1answer
11k views

“Awoken” vs. “awaked”

I understand that the verb awake has two different past participle forms, awoken and awaked. Checking Google Ngram I saw that the former has become more popular than the latter in the last century. I ...
-7
votes
1answer
281 views

“should + have + p.p.” meaning

We can use the following structure Should + have + p.p. with two different meanings. Can someone explain those meanings for me?
1
vote
3answers
49 views

“All opened files” or “all open files”?

I am not sure when I am supposed to use "open" vs "opened". Isn't "opened" the past participle form? Therefore should I talk about "the opened file"? I feel "the open file" sounds more right...
0
votes
2answers
30 views

Hyphenation of a multiple adverb-past participle phrase

I am editing a research article, and I came across a phrase that I am having some trouble hyphenating: "the detoxification of both endogenous and exogenous derived acetaldehyde." My thought is that ...
0
votes
2answers
76 views

What is the tense used in a phrase such as “He is trapped”?

I've read that the -ed suffix usually indicates a "past participle" (as in "I was trapped"), but: I'm not sure what part-of-speech "trapped" functions as in the phrase. Indicating present state ...
-2
votes
1answer
40 views

Is 'walked' the correct tense in this paragraph? [closed]

The next folder she opened contained something that neither of them had expected: five photos of Emily’s brother. They had been taken while James walked through a glass door.
0
votes
1answer
8k views

When to use 'had been' + past participle of the verb

I read the sentence below in a news article: "The couple had been engaged since the summer," her spokeswoman said in a statement. Why was "had been engaged" used in this sentence. Is it wrong to ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

a better term for “Energy Imbalance Market”

These are how I understand the meaning of the phrases Energy imbalanced market: Trading of energy in a market where supply of energy is imbalanced. Energy imbalance market: Trading of ...
4
votes
1answer
238 views

Origin of irregular ending “-ught” for past simple and participle

There is a little group of irregular verbs in English that follow a similar pattern, having "-ught" as their ending for past simple and for participle. These verbs are among the group of most used ...
1
vote
8answers
4k views

Past participle after noun: “proposed cost” vs. “cost proposed”

I have the following two examples: Our proposed cost is expensive. Our cost proposed is expensive. Is there any difference between them? Or is the second sentence wrong?
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Participle clauses with past participles

I have read many times that "participle clauses with past participles have a passive meaning" but I came across this sentence which made me confused.Is this sentence grammatically correct? ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

What is the rule and the exception for doubling consonants in the past participle? [duplicate]

The general rule when constructing the past participle for multisyllable verbs is that the last consonant is doubled if the last syllable is stressed: admit -> admitted program -> programmed ...
2
votes
1answer
30k views

'Seen as' or 'seeing as'

Look at these examples: You should clean the milk seen as you spilt it. You should clean the milk seeing as you spilt it. Which one is correct, and how is it grammatically defined/termed?
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Temporal Clause for Past Participle

I was wondering if there is a difference between reduced temporal clause with gerund and reduced temporal clause with past participle, and which one is used in formal setting? For example: Sentence ...
1
vote
3answers
5k views

Opened vs open?

Is there are rule when to use opened vs open? I always get confused even though I've been speaking English as the dominant language for more than half my life. E.g. Is the door open(ed)? ...
0
votes
3answers
3k views

Another way of saying “being judged”

What is another way of saying "being judged?" The context is: Being judged gave me an open mind about the different ways other cultures are judged and treated as well. Being criticized ...
14
votes
4answers
1k views

What is the past tense form of s--t [closed]

Are shit, shat, and shitted all correct and fine to use as the past tense of shit? After a little bit of searching it seems that they are, with shat being Old English. Is any form more common in ...
2
votes
1answer
264 views

Struck vs Stricken

Is struck or stricken correct in these sentences? The house was stricken / struck by lightning. The house had been stricken / struck by lightning. He was stricken / struck by grief, cancer, etc. ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Infinitive vs. “ing” + past particle [duplicate]

Among the earliest telescopes were Galilean telescopes, modeled after the simple instruments built by Galileo, the first person having used telescopes to study the stars and planets. I know ...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

What does “spurned” modify in “I am walking out of a room to the jeers of a woman spurned”

I am walking out of a room to the jeers of a woman spurned. Which word does the past participle modify in this context? Does it mean that I was spurned while walking out of the room, or am I out ...
4
votes
3answers
987 views

Use didn't leave yet, or haven't left yet? [closed]

My knowledge of English grammar is very basic. I learned English mostly from movies and a lot of times I choose a specific way to say something in English based on intuition or the feeling that it ...
-1
votes
3answers
90 views

“She had lost her consciousness last night at pub after having several cocktails”. Is this sentence grammatical?

She had lost her consciousness last night at the pub after having several cocktails. Is the use of had (the past perfect tense) right here?
1
vote
2answers
148 views

Ellipsis in “can and have occurred”

The side effects can and have occurred. The omitted verb is an infinitive (occur) but the written verb is a past participle (occurred). Is this sentence grammatically correct and suitable for ...
0
votes
2answers
75 views

Correct usage of the verb “tense”

Are you tense? I read this question in a book and was debating if it was a correct usage of the verb 'tense'. I believe the correct usage should be Are you tensed? Am I right about this?
4
votes
2answers
15k views

“Forgotten” or “forgot” as past participle of “forget”

In US and in UK respectively, which is more popular as the past participle of forget: forgotten or forgot? Which is more formal/informal? Examples: I haven't forgot(ten) you. You will not ...
10
votes
4answers
440 views

Past passive tense for smite without connoting infatuation, or an alternative

TL;DR: What is the past tense of smite in the passive voice? Is there an alternative word or series of words with the intended nuance? I am trying to find an alternative to the past passive tense for ...
6
votes
2answers
40k views
2
votes
3answers
25k views

“As evidenced by” or “as evident by”?

I have this sentence: Group theory is one of my favourite areas in mathematics, as evidenced by the fact that I chose to do two group theory modules in my undergraduate course. I am wondering if ...
4
votes
6answers
19k views

Proper usage of the word 'thunk'

What is the proper usage of the word thunk? According to Merriam-Webster, it is dialect past and past participle of think Can it be used in a formal context? Is "Who would have thunk?" different ...
2
votes
1answer
89 views

Correct usage of past participle?

I'm not a native English speaker, and yesterday I entered a [short] debate with a French guy (again, not native English speaker) who insisted that "the task was scheduled" is not valid from a ...
1
vote
2answers
369 views

Why “broke” and not “broken” in “If it ain't broke, don't fix it”?

If it ain't broke, don't fix it an idiom says. Why isn't it If it ain't broken, don't fix it On the other hand the lyrics of a song "Victory" played by a band "Deliverance" are as follows: ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

A question regarding a parallel

I came across a very neat parallel, but I wonder if I can use the structure today without setting off alarm in an editor's head. A stretch of a series is any piece taken out of it, and not having ...
0
votes
1answer
226 views

Past tense usage in a formal email [duplicate]

During the period between January and today, I have added many changes to my resume that i want to make an employer noticed of. I doubt between 'have done' and 'had done'. " I would like to inform ...
52
votes
6answers
6k views

What we've gelost — why doesn't English use the prefix “ge-”?

The Germanic languages that I'm familiar with all use a prefix similar to ge- on past participles: German: Ich habe mir den Fuß gebrochen. Dutch: Ik heb mijn voet gebroken. But English ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

Is “dispreferred” a mainstream word in English?

I just recently came across the word dispreferred in a linguistic document. I have never heard the word used before, rather I generally hear something like "preferred something else" in everyday ...
4
votes
2answers
533 views

Is “proven” very old -fashioned?

I occasionally see the participle "proven" in mathematical texts, instead of "proved". Of course I realize that this a deliberate archaism, but I wanted to know if this is still used in books or ...
0
votes
2answers
124 views

Using “heretofore” in the past perfect

Is it grammatically correct to use "heretofore" in the past perfect? ...the king's power, which had heretofore been absolute. The meaning of "heretofore" is "before now", but would it still work ...
0
votes
3answers
3k views

What's the difference between an adjective and a past participle? [closed]

I'm really confused about the object the doctor specialized will help you or the documents required How can I tell in the future, if I have to use the past participle or the adjective? And ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

How reliable is to be + past participle to identify passive voice? [duplicate]

I am trying to write a software that can identify simple variants of passive voice in an english sentence. I found multiple resources that state that to be + a past participle is an indication that ...
3
votes
3answers
6k views

“Disbalanced” vs. “unbalanced”

What are the differences in usage between disbalanced and unbalanced?
0
votes
0answers
16 views
1
vote
3answers
87 views

is “imperative” correct here

I am writing a piece of software related to meetings. Participants are invited to a meeting using a button which the command "invite" is written to be pressed by the person who wished to do the ...
0
votes
2answers
125 views

Which is more correct: “skewen” or “skewn”?

Which spelling for the past participle of skew is more correct: skewen or skewn? (I recognise it is not the more common spelling of skewed, but regionally and personally skewen is more in use in ...
3
votes
4answers
2k views

“Worried person” vs. “concerned person”

According to H. Stephens, "There is a great difference between worry and concern. A worried person sees a problem, and a concerned person solves a problem". But ODE seems to be disagreeing with him: ...
12
votes
7answers
12k views

What does the term “86'd” relate to?

What does it mean when someone or something is referred to as being "86'd"?
2
votes
2answers
10k views

What is the past participle of the verb open?

I'm French and I'd like to be precise on the conjugation of the verb "open". On this picture, I'd write "opened" instead of "open". Could you tell me more about why they have written "open"?
0
votes
1answer
167 views

When to use under and over as prefixes rather than adverbs with past participles

Is there a rule on when under and over are used as prefixes rather than adverbs when attached to past participles (and whether or not they are hyphenated)? In general, it seems that both words are ...
0
votes
1answer
242 views

Is it correct to say “I was sure after a year I would get over it”?

My pet dog died last summer, she was the only one I had, but I was sure after a year I would get over it. Or should I say I had get over it there instead?
0
votes
1answer
120 views

Using past participle vs existent noun form for adjective

There are multiple ways a noun can be described by an adjective by a word that is already an adjective (e.g., big, dark, high, low) by a noun (mushroom house) by a participle (running dogs, painted ...