A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb or verb phrase, and thus plays a role similar to that of an adjective or adverb.

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Postmodification using participle: Is it grammatical?

I am a Japanese teacher of English who is making a teaching material for my students. I would like to know whether the following usage would be totally accepted in school grammar. To put my question ...
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41 views

How can you tell when a participle is being used as an adjective?

How can you tell when a participle is being used as an adjective? I feel completely lost trying to guess. Just as a completely arbitrary example For every dedicated scientist patiently recording ...
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43 views

Is it possible to change “If-clauses” into participles?

Some English grammar books in Korea tell us that we can change “if-clauses” into participles, but when I have checked everywhere on google about participles, they don't show any examples though only a ...
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27 views

Gerund and Participles

I need your expert skills to solve this confusion regarding the use of gerund and participles. Here is the sentence Standing in the shallow end, he would practice his arm movements. I want to know ...
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24 views

Hyphenation between participle and preposition before a noun?

When visiting a London hospital, Florence Nightingale was shocked at the dirty and uncared for patients. The above sentence is from an essay. Should we write "uncared-for patients", with a ...
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44 views

Laid vs. Lain in This Sentence [closed]

Which past participle would fit best in the following sentence? I've always struggled with this one. The idea that had presented itself during the meeting had plagued him all night, and he'd ____ ...
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13 views

“celebrating” or “to celebrate”?

The following sentences are the same except the bold parts. Which of the following sentences sounds natural to native speakers of English? A, B or both? A: Farmers who are growing rice for profit ...
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26 views

participle adjectives

I'd like to ask for guidance on where paticipial adjectives should be placed. In the first sentence below, the past participle adjective is before the word that it modifies: 'broken chair.' But in ...
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34 views

Is there a list of present/past participles that can't be used as adjectives? [closed]

Some present and past participles can be used as adjectives: a howling dog, a sleeping baby, aged cheese, etc. I'm having trouble coming up with more words that can't be used as adjectives (all I ...
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48 views

Passive and past tense

I have to write an abstract which present my research and results. Do you think the following sentences are right in terms of tense and using of passive together? 1."It has been observed that the ...
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3answers
116 views

When is “loved” a past participle and when is it simple past?

Some one asked this question: He is loved. This is something that I've always kind of wondered. In a sentence like this, is loved a verb or an adjective? Can it be considered either? The simple ...
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1answer
49 views

Participle Clause - past particple

As I hadn't finished my assignment, I was very anxious. = Not having/Having not finished my assignment, I was very anxious. Consider changing the sentence: Not finished my assignment, I ...
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1answer
70 views

Participle and gerund [duplicate]

Barking dogs seldom bite. Barking is a gerund or present participle? His rising early in the morning, helped him score well. His rising early in the morning -- is this a participle clause? Can ...
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1answer
26 views

How do I choose between a noun and a participle when picking one to use as an adjective?

I know that I can use both a noun and a particle as an adjective but what do I have to ask myself when choosing between them? For instance: Talking points, talk points Information ...
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37 views

Had + past participle or Would Have + past participle?

I would like to know which sentence is grammatically correct and why? If I am talking about a hypothetical case and I want to know what would happen if something have occurred. For example: I turned ...
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2answers
119 views

What are these “[verb]-ing” forms called? [duplicate]

How would you describe the bolded words here? They don't intuitively seem like present participles to me, but I might be wrong.   List X can be created by appending the contents of List B to ...
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1answer
231 views

Comma before adverbial participial phrases (reduced adverbial phrases) and participial prepositions

Another tricky comma question that has recently popped up in my line work that I have not been able to resolve to my satisfaction. Apologies it's a bit long, but all parts are related and additional ...
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53 views

Why is there no comma between this participle phrase and the main clause

I searched around, and they said that all the participle phrases are happening concurrently with the main clause. Hm, I thought they are consecutively happening, according to ...
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2answers
127 views

Nobody was surprised at John being absent (present participle or gerund?)

Some time ago I learned the difference between Present Participle and Gerund and today I decided to pass any online test to make sure I get it. So, I passed it having made the only mistake which is ...
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1answer
59 views

Present participle and perfect participle in subordinate clause [closed]

In what case can the present participle / perfect participle replace a subordinate clause? If the subject of the main clause differs from the subject in the subordinate clause, how is the subordinate ...
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2answers
67 views

“Not to have been asked” vs “not being asked”- what's the difference?

Sentence Transformation: She will be upset that she wasn't asked. The answer to this statement is as follows: She will be upset not to have been asked. Could this also be possible? She ...
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2answers
62 views

The way the past participle is used in these sentences

First, this is the meaning I am trying to put in writing: She could not tolerate the sight of them as they were being put to death. And I want the progressive aspect to be clear. Which of ...
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1answer
42 views

Present perfect or present perfect continuous with a participle? [duplicate]

I'm trying to figure out what tense (or tenses) are involved when you have a participle with "to be." Examples: Ballet is performed in the theatre. Decorum is maintained in the ballroom. English is ...
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1answer
26 views

Categorization & Validity of a clause

if I have the sentence "A killing B is called murder." is "A killing B" a regular participle clause or is that impossible because it has a subject? In other words: Can a participle clause have a ...
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1answer
39 views

Using preposition “with” [closed]

I don't know what the difference between these sentences is, especially the use of present participle and past participle. One is "with my back leaning against the wall", the other is "with arms ...
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20 views

How are Old English participles declened to English participles? (both present and past) [duplicate]

I'm trying to learn about differences between English and Old English and I found that there are some noticeable differences in the use of participle markings. I think historically, there had been the ...
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1answer
104 views

Seem small clause

It is said that the omission of "to be" is allowed only when the adjective (phrases), noun (phrases), or prepositional phrase comes after the to be like this: a He seemed (to be) angry about the ...
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Why did the author use “muttering” instead of “mutters” in this sentence?

"He wanders away from the group, muttering something about fingers and toes." - The hunger game, Mockingjay. And can you give me the name of this grammar structure? Is it short form of relative ...
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60 views

Participle phrase at the end of the sentence

When participle phrase comes at the end of the sentence, it usually modifies the subject. 1 He smiled nervously with a chocolate in his hands, thinking that the end has come. Here, participle ...
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1answer
49 views

Which clauses with phrases

Can which clause modify participle phrases? Which clause is usually used for summarizing or explaining the clause before it. 1 His wife was stunning, which was always his pride. 2 I left ...
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79 views

Adverb of manner and participle in subjective participle construction

Why is an adverb of manner placed before participle in the sentence "We watched the temperature gradually rising"? I know that if the verb is transitive, then the adverb of manner can be placed ...
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1answer
43 views

participle phrase or to-infinitive phrase

In response to the long-term measures recommended by the School Board, the then Principal initiated the Pledge Day on “Clean LA", to encourage all schools to make the “Clean LA” commitment on ...
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230 views

'Participle phrase', 'Participle clause', 'Participle construction'

I am studying in Korean. In my grammar book, below sentences are called 'participle phrase' 1) Seeing police officer, he ran away. 2) Buying it online, you have to use a paypal. 3) Realizing his ...
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“Complicated” or “complicating”

Can anyone tell me why sentence (A) is wrong, and (B) is correct? (A) "The topic of landmines is very heavy and complicating." (B) "The topic of landmines is very heavy and complicated." To ...
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'Relates to' vs. 'Is Related to'

Does the choice between passive/active voice make any difference in the examples below? My question relates to your earlier work. My question is related to you earlier work. Nerve cells relate to ...
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Are copulars considered linking, helping, or auxiliaries?

I'm having a hard time understanding why most people consider the infinitive to be and all of its verb base forms helping verbs. I've consulted multiple English grammar sites and forums, and most of ...
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1answer
272 views

Is this the correct explanation of the difference between “excited” and “exciting”, “bored” and “boring”, etc?

Ok, there are many websites that explain this, but I think they are not clear. Here is what I came up with: -the adjective with "-ed" like excited or bored: a person or other animal has received ...
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41 views

pronoun/noun followed by present participle [duplicate]

I would really resent him doing this project. I would really resent his doing this project. What I suspect is that the difference between in these sentences is that the emphasis is put upon ...
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4answers
393 views

Posititon of an adverb of manner with participles

I have seen many rules about position of an adverbs with finite forms of verbs but I can't find the rule about where to place an adverb with nonfinitive verbs. For example which of the sentence sounds ...
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1answer
66 views

Which one is correct: “to have verbed” or “verbing”?

I have two confusing sentences and I am in two minds whether the first or the second is more grammatically correct: He was by far the most knowledgeable person to have commented on the subject, so ...
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2answers
174 views

“Escaped” and “retired”

I want to check if what I know is correct or not. We can say "escaped prisoners". In this phrase, "escaped" works as a pre-modifier of "prisoner". But, we cannot use it as a post-modifier like "the ...
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2answers
715 views

using both Past Simple and Past Perfect in the same paragraph

Is there a rule about consistency within a paragraph, of using past tense and past participle in alternate sentences? In my writing class, I notice some writers mix the two freely. Since I see this ...
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2answers
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Confused: I have a tendency to begin sentences after semicolon by using verbs in the participle. What am I doing wrong?

From the marker of my essay: The author has a tendency to begin sentences after semicolon by using verbs in the participle. bold is the problem. I have made up some sentences which demonstrate this ...
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1answer
125 views

Participle clauses with past participles

I have read many times that "participle clauses with past participles have a passive meaning" but I came across this sentence which made me confused.Is this sentence grammatically correct? ...
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1answer
96 views

Participle phrases

When I was studying participle phrases, I came across a sentence on a grammar teaching website, which I find trustful.The sentence is : Opening the envelope, I found two concert tickets. And ...
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4answers
117 views

Survey Question

I have drafted an internal employee survey focused around "inclusion". One of the questions has been vetoed incorrect by my supervisor, while I maintain that the original is grammatically correct. ...
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29 views

'watch her run' vs 'watch her running' [duplicate]

QUESTION 1 I'm trying to figure out the seemingly subtle difference(s) between a sentence modified by a bare infinitive and one modified by a participle phrase. What do you get out of these: I ...
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1answer
313 views

Is there a better term for “perfect infinitive”, “perfect participle” or “perfect gerund”?

BACKGROUND There are grammar terms such as 'present perfect' and 'past perfect' as in: She has learned English for 10 years. [present perfect] She had learned English when she was little. ...
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219 views

grammatical elements in 'as + ing'?

In dictionary, I see phrases in the form of 'as + ing' quite many times, for example, attribute : regard something as being caused by (something or someone) Is 'as' here a preposition or ...
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A question regarding a parallel

I came across a very neat parallel, but I wonder if I can use the structure today without setting off alarm in an editor's head. A stretch of a series is any piece taken out of it, and not having ...