This tag is concerned with the usage of the glyphs ( and ), known as parentheses (singular parenthesis) in American English and as brackets in British English.

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Usage of Parenthetical Plural

I am trying to rewrite two sentences like the following into a single sentence using a parenthetical plural: 1: The rule will add an assertion. 2: The rule will add assertions. Combining ...
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32 views

Sequential (and nested) parenthetical sentences and phrases

According to MLA and APA, sequential parenthetical citations should be separated by a semi-colon, so: "John Avery and George Marshall both say that capitalism has existed in America since the ...
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26 views

Shortening a frequently used phrase in a paper

What is the correct term for referring to something as X throughout the remainder of a paper/article? For instance, I'm writing a mock memorandum to a client in a tax class I'm taking and I would like ...
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3answers
26 views

The use of a comma, bracket or nothing?

Firstly, as far as I am aware, 'unjustifiability' is not an actual English word. However, is it ok to use it within the contexts of a philosophy essay? The The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy on ...
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3answers
41 views

Capitalization with parentheses at the beginning of a slide bullet point

Which is correct for a bullet point in a slide presentation? (Continuous) Application deployment or (Continuous) application deployment This is not a title, but just a fragment ...
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3answers
58 views

Two periods required?

When a sentence ends with a parenthetical statement which itself ends with a period, does the sentence also need a period? Example: I love eating vegetables (carrots, peas, etc.). The two ...
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1answer
46 views

How to know when to use dashes or commas or braces when describing something in the middle of a sentence?

For example, you have a sentence like this: But let’s pluck a word at random from the vocabulary tree: lambaste. Let’s say whenever you encounter this word, the first four letters, l-a-m-b, ...
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3answers
148 views

Parentheses for alternatives in statement

I often come across a use of parentheses where the parentheses refer to an "alternative layer" of a statement. An example might be helpful here: "Hence, changes in employment that increase ...
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19 views

'A' or 'an' against optional (bracketed) part? [duplicate]

If I have a statement : "She provides a (easy) path to information," should I use a or an ? I know I could re-write the optional adjective to be something that starts with a consonant sound, i.e.? ...
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40 views

Are we taught to use parentheses in the wrong way and too often? [closed]

I'm finding a lot of questions and answers in general on SE are very liberal in using parenthesis to wrap secondary information within sentences which leads to broken flow and reduced readability. ...
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5answers
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When to write the word “parenthetically”

I understand that if you're speaking a phrase in which you would write parentheses, you can say the word parenthetically. But when should you write the word parenthetically? I came across this ...
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1answer
49 views

“A” or “an” with adjective in parenthesis [duplicate]

Which of the following two forms is correct? (And if there's no agreement about that, which one is more common?) a (optional) parameter an (optional) parameter The problem is that the choice ...
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51 views

Parentheses or quotations for English name (foreigner)? [closed]

My English name is Michael (my name is Minh, so Michael and Minh have some similarity). Should I put my name as: Minh "Michael" Nguyen or Minh (Michael) Nguyen (on a résumé, business card, email ...
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1answer
80 views

Showing possession when the noun is defined by a word in parentheses

Document Title: Plaintiff's Interrogatories to Defendant There are multiple plaintiffs. We typically define the plaintiff as, "Plaintiffs (Smith) want to object...etc." and this particular plaintiff ...
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3answers
131 views

(Parentheses (inside parentheses)) [duplicate]

As you saw in the title, parentheses inside parentheses don't look too good. But, gramatically speaking, is it correct to do this? For example: Go to this site (you should probably check it out, ...
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1answer
69 views

In my example, did I use brackets correctly?

I know the rules of this site state to only ask questions to get direct answers, but I'm hoping I could still get a little suggestion on what to do. I'm writing a research paper, so the context is ...
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1answer
114 views

When referencing attached documents at the end of a sentence in parenthesis do you capitalize the first letter? [duplicate]

The aging reports are used by management to determine what files should be worked on first (see aging reports attached).
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103 views

How to conjugate a verb with multiple subjects [closed]

Say you have the following sentence: Alice (and her family) [some present-tense inflection of the verb be]. . . . How do you conjugate be here? It refers both to Alice and "her family". Thus ...
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4answers
29k views

Where does the question mark go — inside or outside the parentheses?

I know that when brackets enclose part of a sentence, the full stop goes outside. I tripped over this morning. I was distracted by a plane (which turned out to be Superman). If it's a full ...
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54 views

Have I corrected this sentence properly? [closed]

Could anyone clarify that I have corrected the following sentence properly? Original sentence: The day will kick off with a variety of stalls for everyone to enjoy from 10am-12pm including cakes, ...
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1answer
279 views

Use of brackets in legal writing

I see in legal writing the use of double brackets in a quote to indicate part of the quote is deleted, such as: "All work [] makes Johnny a very dull boy." I thought the correct way to do this quote ...
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1answer
75 views

quotes and brackets

I'm programming a parser for a new language, and need a word which references all kinds of quotes and brackets: "" '' <> () [] {} Up to now I always used "quotes and brackets", but is there ...
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2answers
152 views

quoting and punctuating a quote within parentheses

How do I make sure to punctuate my quotes within parentheses correctly? For example: Joe did not demonstrate insight into how he might alter his behavior to improve his social interactions (e.g., ...
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3answers
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Parentheses vs. double commas vs. dashes to provide additional detail

When do you use commas and when do you use parentheses to provide more detail about something? For example: The suspect, Tom Wilson, is now being charged with murder. The suspect (Tom Wilson) is ...
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When a sentence uses an optional plural, should the rest of the sentence treat it as singular or plural?

Consider the following sentence: We assume that the individual(s) possesses some general knowledge of the rules of football. Is "possesses" correct there? Should it be "possess"? Is the rule ...
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5answers
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Number agreement when using “(s)” for optional plural

I have a question about the following construction and which instance is correct. Selecting an appropriate study topic(s). Selecting appropriate study topic(s). When it is both singular ...
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What indefinite article to use when there is an adjective in parenthesis? [duplicate]

When using a or an before a noun should you take into account any additional information provided in parenthesis? For example, is it better to say "I would like a (emerald) necklace" or "I would like ...
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0answers
69 views

Condensing information which uses the same sentence structure via parentheses [on hold]

Suppose I want to unify the following definitions into one sentence An X system is given by its X representation A Y system is given by its Y representation A Z system is given by its Z ...
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4answers
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Parentheses around more than one paragraph

Does English allow one to put parentheses around more than one paragraph? Example: Paragraph 1. (Paragraph 2. Paragraph 3.) Paragraph 4. (Of course, this is just a simple example. ...
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1answer
42 views

Add parentheses when using alternative content? [duplicate]

Would you add parentheses in the first place when you write alternative content? Example: "This car has a(n) (optional) navigation system." or "This car has a (optional) navigation system." ? ...
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1answer
42 views

How to use articles in parentheses?

Do I need to use an article for the option word in parentheses? If you want to create a new design of a handle (flag), the outer diameter of the casing can be changed in the place of possible ...
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2answers
162 views

How to correctly capitalize words inside of brackets/parentheses in article names and book titles?

How do I correctly capitalize words inside of brackets/parentheses in names and titles? A few examples: Captain America (untold stories) Captain America (Untold Stories) Madonna (written ...
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10answers
4k views

“A/An” preceding a parenthetical statement

When a/an precedes a parenthetical aside (sometimes seen in informal/conversational writing), should the vowel rule depend on the first word in parentheses, or the next word in the "regular" flow of ...
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1answer
188 views

Period placement in a sentence containing both parantheses and quotes

Which of the following is correct: (This is a "test"). (This is a "test.") (This is a "test".)
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If an insertion in parentheses ends with a smiley, how do I distinguish between the two?

I know smileys are not part of written language (yet), and any questions about them are irrelevant to linguistics and are kind of not serious. So take my question with a smiley then. It bugs me ...
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3answers
780 views

Capital letter in parentheses after full stop [closed]

I am writing up a project and I am wondering whether or not I would capitalize the first letter in brackets where the brackets are the start of the sentence. For example, consider the following: I ...
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1answer
26 views

In my example, did I use parentheses correctly? [closed]

As mentioned before, Table 1 is evidence that alcohol consumption was reduced by 9.2% (with statistical significance at the 1% level). Should I remove or leave the parentheses?
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28 views

In my example, do I need parentheses?

(ϕ_1 ) ̂ is the first stage (the estimated effect of the MLDA on alcohol consumption). (ρ_1 ) ̂ is the reduced form (the estimated effect of the MLDA on either overall deaths, motor vehicle ...
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1answer
74 views

In my example, can I use parentheses in such a way?

This is for writing a research paper. Some of the different regressions include higher polynomial orders with (or without) the birthday variable
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1answer
260 views

Can or should you use two ellipsis points in one large quote?

So if i were to quote an author and I want to add a later part to an earlier part by putting it in the middle of the first quote? an example : The researcher, led by Woo-Suk Hwang, insist they ...
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169 views

Use of Parentheses

Am I correct in refusing to use parentheses around the area code for my telephone number? Those three digits are not at all incidental.
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24k views

In which cases is a comma/period placed inside or outside of parentheses?

Are there cases where a period is placed inside parentheses? In which cases the period (or a comma) should be placed inside the parentheses?
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2answers
75 views

Is it appropriate to use a colon in this situation?

For example: I did a quick search and found the following, but I am still confused: List item 1 List item 2 etc. Is it appropriate to still use the colon after adding the statement , but I am ...
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1answer
116 views

Comma after quotation in parentheses [duplicate]

I have a quote in parentheses, and I was wondering whether the comma should go inside the quotation marks or after the closing parenthesis: Now, with weapons like Laser Lipstick (“gives a whole ...
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1answer
99 views

Assigning a name in parentheses - do authorities consider it kosher?

I have often seen constructions like, Your best friend(Jim) called today. Six hundred square feet of space on the second floor of 921 County Lane, corresponding to the area shown crosshatched in ...
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4answers
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Using i.e. in parentheses

When a writer uses parentheses to define a phrase or clarify a word in a sentence, is it appropriate also to use i.e. in the parentheses? That use seems redundant to me.
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2answers
70 views

Parentheses surrounding footnote body [closed]

It's unbelievably hard to find relevant information online, as almost every Google search just gives pages of advice and questions regarding citations and referencing styles. If I use a footnote in ...
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3answers
7k views

What does an exclamation mark inside parentheses “(!)” mean?

What does an exclamation mark inside parentheses "(!)" mean? I saw this in a book review I was reading and I didn't understand what the use of it was. Can someone help me?
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139 views

The grammar restriction of dash and parentheses

This is a follow-up to my previous question. The answerer mentioned that when parentheses are used for inserting contents in a sentence, the grammar flexibility is assumed to be higher. If that is ...
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4answers
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How to deal with irregular plural(s)?

What happens if you have a written phrase like We were looking at the same poster(s). but with a noun that has an irregular plural? E.g. with baby/babies, would this be the correct form? We ...